Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology

List of Papers (Total 272)

A Review of Tuberculous Meningitis in a Canadian Pediatric Hospital

Tuberculous meningitis is a disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Experience with this disease at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto was reviewed to determine whether changes in prognosis have occurred in the past decade. All patients from whom the organism was recovered from the cerebrospinal fluid, or who had a positive Mantoux test in association with a...

The Search for Ixodes dammini and Borrelia burgdorferi in Nova Scotia

Twenty-four Ixodes dammini ticks (23 adults and one nymph) have been recovered in Nova Scotia since 1984. There has not been a systematic search for larvae and none has been identified. The recovery of the nymph from a road-killed yellow throat bird, Geothypis trichas, in late May 1990 supports the contention that migrating birds are bringing deer ticks into the province every...

Group C Streptococcal Endocarditis Presenting as Clinical Meningitis: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

Lancefield group C streptococci are known to be pathogenic in a number of animal species, but cause human disease much less commonly than do streptococci of scrogroups A or B. Reported cases of bacteremic infection, pneumonia or meningitis in humans have been very severe with a grave prognosis. The authors describe a patient who presented with classic clinical and laboratory...

Influenza Surveillance in an Urban Area

In Houston the yearly influenza epidemics have been defined virologically by community surveillance obtained by testing specimens submitted from patients with acute respiratory illnesses seen by sentinel physicians. Mortality attributed to influenza and pneumonia has increased regularly during the period of intense influenza virus activity, but the peak has lagged two weeks...

Reduction in Surgical Wound Infection Rates Associated with Reporting Data to Surgeons

Several studies have shown that wound infection (surgical site infection [ ssi ]) rates fall when surgeons are provided with data on their performance. Since 1987, the authors have been performing concurrent surveillance of surgical patients and confidentially reporting surgeon-specific ssi rates to individual surgeons and their clinical directors, and providing surgeons with the...

Newer Clinical Strategies for Combining Interferon and Cytotoxic Agents Against Solid Tumours and Hematological Malignancies

The role of interferons in the treatment of cancer continues to evolve. Despite limited single agent activity against solid tumours, interferons now appear to have an important role as modulators of the activity of a variety of cytotoxic drugs. Clinical benefits have been observed for combinations of interferons and alkylating agents against low grade lymphomas, interferons and...

Identification of Mutations that Encode Drug Resistance in the Polymerase Gene of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

In vitro selection in MT-4 cells was used to generate human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV 1) variants that are resistant to 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC), 2',3'-didcoxyinosine (ddI) and the (-) enantiomer of 2

Current Indications for the Use of Clindamycin: A Critical Review

OBJECTIVES: To review the literature and develop evidence-based guidelines for the use of the antibiotic clindamycin.

Imipenem and Meropenem: Comparison of In Vitro Activity, Pharmacokinetics, Clinical Trials and Adverse Effects

OBJECTIVE: To compare and contrast imipenem and meropenem in terms of in vitro activity, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy and adverse effects.

In Vitro Activity of Cefepime against Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli, Viridans Group Streptococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae from a Cross-Canada Surveillance Study

OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vitro activity of cefepime against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci obtained from an ongoing cross-Canada surveillance study.

Susceptibility of Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci in the Lower St Lawrence Region, Quebec

OBJECTIVE: To determine the susceptibility of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) in the lower St Lawrence region, Quebec to different antibiotics, particularly macrolides, and to compare different antibiogram methods (disk diffusion, E-test and microdilution) and incubation atmospheres (ambient air and 5% carbon dioxide).

Persistently HIV-1 Seronegative Nairobi Sex Workers Are Susceptible to In Vitro Infection

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether resistance to HIV-1 infection in a subset of highly exposed sex workers correlates with resistance at the cellular level.

Monitoring Guidelines for Home and Outpatient Parenteral Antibiotic Therapy

When prescribing home intravenous antibiotic therapy (HIVAT), physicians must consider not only the factors normally considered in a hospital setting, but also the limitations and advantages of home therapy. Examples include dosage schedule, short and long term toxicity, stability of the antibiotics at room temperature after dilution, half-life of antibiotics, compatibility with...

Pertussis Immunization for Adolescents: What Are We Waiting for?

Immunization against pertussis (whooping cough) has been part of the routine childhood immunization program for over 50 years. Until 1997, a whole cell pertussis vaccine was used, most often combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids; in some jurisdictions it was combined with inactivated poliovirus vaccine and later with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-conjugate vaccine...

Community-Based Cluster of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Manitoba

A community-based, single strain cluster of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is described. The cluster of cases was identified in a small rural community in southwestern Manitoba, although some spread of the MRSA strain to neighbouring communities was observed. The majority of people were otherwise healthy, had no contact with the hospital system and did not fit...