Space Science Reviews

http://link.springer.com/journal/11214

List of Papers (Total 274)

Kelvin–Helmholtz Instability: Lessons Learned and Ways Forward

The Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) is a ubiquitous phenomenon across the Universe, observed from 500 m deep in the oceans on Earth to the Orion molecular cloud. Over the past two decades, several space missions have enabled a leap forward in our understanding of this phenomenon at the Earth’s magnetopause. Key results obtained by these missions are first presented, with a...

Abundances, Ionization States, Temperatures, and FIP in Solar Energetic Particles

The relative abundances of chemical elements and isotopes have been our most effective tool in identifying and understanding the physical processes that control populations of energetic particles. The early surprise in solar energetic particles (SEPs) was 1000-fold enhancements in \({}^{3}\mbox{He}/{}^{4}\mbox{He}\) from resonant wave-particle interactions in the small “impulsive...

Order out of Randomness: Self-Organization Processes in Astrophysics

Self-organization is a property of dissipative nonlinear processes that are governed by a global driving force and a local positive feedback mechanism, which creates regular geometric and/or temporal patterns, and decreases the entropy locally, in contrast to random processes. Here we investigate for the first time a comprehensive number of (17) self-organization processes that...

The Origin, Early Evolution and Predictability of Solar Eruptions

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) were discovered in the early 1970s when space-borne coronagraphs revealed that eruptions of plasma are ejected from the Sun. Today, it is known that the Sun produces eruptive flares, filament eruptions, coronal mass ejections and failed eruptions; all thought to be due to a release of energy stored in the coronal magnetic field during its drastic...

Modelling Quasi-Periodic Pulsations in Solar and Stellar Flares

Solar flare emission is detected in all EM bands and variations in flux density of solar energetic particles. Often the EM radiation generated in solar and stellar flares shows a pronounced oscillatory pattern, with characteristic periods ranging from a fraction of a second to several minutes. These oscillations are referred to as quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs), to emphasise...

Giant Planet Formation and Migration

Planets form in circumstellar discs around young stars. Starting with sub-micron sized dust particles, giant planet formation is all about growing 14 orders of magnitude in size. It has become increasingly clear over the past decades that during all stages of giant planet formation, the building blocks are extremely mobile and can change their semimajor axis by substantial...

Crucial Physical Dependencies of the Core-Collapse Supernova Mechanism

We explore with self-consistent 2D Fornax simulations the dependence of the outcome of collapse on many-body corrections to neutrino-nucleon cross sections, the nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung rate, electron capture on heavy nuclei, pre-collapse seed perturbations, and inelastic neutrino-electron and neutrino-nucleon scattering. Importantly, proximity to criticality amplifies the...

Astronomical Distance Determination in the Space Age

The formal division of the distance indicators into primary and secondary leads to difficulties in description of methods which can actually be used in two ways: with, and without the support of the other methods for scaling. Thus instead of concentrating on the scaling requirement we concentrate on all methods of distance determination to extragalactic sources which are...

Atmosphere Impact Losses

Determining the origin of volatiles on terrestrial planets and quantifying atmospheric loss during planet formation is crucial for understanding the history and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Using geochemical observations of noble gases and major volatiles we determine what the present day inventory of volatiles tells us about the sources, the accretion process and the...

Venus: The Atmosphere, Climate, Surface, Interior and Near-Space Environment of an Earth-Like Planet

This is a review of current knowledge about Earth’s nearest planetary neighbour and near twin, Venus. Such knowledge has recently been extended by the European Venus Express and the Japanese Akatsuki spacecraft in orbit around the planet; these missions and their achievements are concisely described in the first part of the review, along with a summary of previous Venus...

Pulsar Timing and Its Application for Navigation and Gravitational Wave Detection

Pulsars are natural cosmic clocks. On long timescales they rival the precision of terrestrial atomic clocks. Using a technique called pulsar timing, the exact measurement of pulse arrival times allows a number of applications, ranging from testing theories of gravity to detecting gravitational waves. Also an external reference system suitable for autonomous space navigation can...

OCAMS: The OSIRIS-REx Camera Suite

The OSIRIS-REx Camera Suite (OCAMS) will acquire images essential to collecting a sample from the surface of Bennu. During proximity operations, these images will document the presence of satellites and plumes, record spin state, enable an accurate model of the asteroid’s shape, and identify any surface hazards. They will confirm the presence of sampleable regolith on the surface...

Impacts of Cosmic Dust on Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces

Recent advances in interplanetary dust modelling provide much improved estimates of the fluxes of cosmic dust particles into planetary (and lunar) atmospheres throughout the solar system. Combining the dust particle size and velocity distributions with new chemical ablation models enables the injection rates of individual elements to be predicted as a function of location and...

The Science of Sungrazers, Sunskirters, and Other Near-Sun Comets

This review addresses our current understanding of comets that venture close to the Sun, and are hence exposed to much more extreme conditions than comets that are typically studied from Earth. The extreme solar heating and plasma environments that these objects encounter change many aspects of their behaviour, thus yielding valuable information on both the comets themselves that...

The Application of Coherent Local Time for Optical Time Transfer and the Quantification of Systematic Errors in Satellite Laser Ranging

Highly precise time and stable reference frequencies are fundamental requirements for space geodesy. Satellite laser ranging (SLR) is one of these techniques, which differs from all other applications like Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and finally Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) by...

Space Weather Effects in the Earth’s Radiation Belts

The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy...

Accretion Disks and Coronae in the X-Ray Flashlight

Plasma accreted onto the surface of a neutron star can ignite due to unstable thermonuclear burning and produce a bright flash of X-ray emission called a Type-I X-ray burst. Such events are very common; thousands have been observed to date from over a hundred accreting neutron stars. The intense, often Eddington-limited, radiation generated in these thermonuclear explosions can...

UFFO/Lomonosov: The Payload for the Observation of Early Photons from Gamma Ray Bursts

The payload of the UFFO (Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory)-pathfinder now onboard the Lomonosov spacecraft (hereafter UFFO/Lomonosov) is a dedicated instrument for the observation of GRBs. Its primary aim is to capture the rise phase of the optical light curve, one of the least known aspects of GRBs. Fast response measurements of the optical emission of GRB will be made by a Slewing...

UBAT of UFFO/Lomonosov: The X-Ray Space Telescope to Observe Early Photons from Gamma-Ray Bursts

The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) Burst Alert and Trigger Telescope (UBAT) has been designed and built for the localization of transient X-ray sources such as Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). As one of main instruments in the UFFO payload onboard the Lomonosov satellite (hereafter UFFO/Lomonosov), the UBAT’s roles are to monitor the X-ray sky, to rapidly locate and track transient...

Search for Varying Constants of Nature from Astronomical Observation of Molecules

The status of searches for possible variation in the constants of nature from astronomical observation of molecules is reviewed, focusing on the dimensionless constant representing the proton-electron mass ratio \(\mu =m_{p}/m_{e}\). The optical detection of H2 and CO molecules with large ground-based telescopes (as the ESO-VLT and the Keck telescopes), as well as the detection...

Wide-Field Gamma-Spectrometer BDRG: GRB Monitor On-Board the Lomonosov Mission

The study of GRB prompt emissions (PE) is one of the main goals of the Lomonosov space mission. The payloads of the GRB monitor (BDRG) with the wide-field optical cameras (SHOK) and the ultra-fast flash observatory (UFFO) onboard the Lomonosov satellite are intended for the observation of GRBs, and in particular, their prompt emissions. The BDRG gamma-ray spectrometer is designed...

The Atmospheric Chemistry Suite (ACS) of Three Spectrometers for the ExoMars 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter

The Atmospheric Chemistry Suite (ACS) package is an element of the Russian contribution to the ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) mission. ACS consists of three separate infrared spectrometers, sharing common mechanical, electrical, and thermal interfaces. This ensemble of spectrometers has been designed and developed in response to the Trace Gas Orbiter mission...