Journal of Experimental Botany

http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org

List of Papers (Total 6,786)

Differences in glycosyltransferase family 61 accompany variation in seed coat mucilage composition in Plantago spp.

Xylans are the most abundant non-cellulosic polysaccharide found in plant cell walls. A diverse range of xylan structures influence tissue function during growth and development. Despite the abundance of xylans in nature, details of the genes and biochemical pathways controlling their biosynthesis are lacking. In this study we have utilized natural variation within the Plantago ...

RABBIT EARS regulates the transcription of TCP4 during petal development in Arabidopsis

Plant organ growth requires the proper transition from cell proliferation to cell expansion and differentiation. The CIN-TCP transcription factor gene TCP4 and its post-transcriptional regulator microRNA319 play a pivotal role in this process. In this study, we identified a pathway in which the product of the C2H2 zinc finger gene RABBIT EARS (RBE) regulates the transcription of ...

Wortmannin-induced vacuole fusion enhances amyloplast dynamics in Arabidopsis zigzag1 hypocotyls

Gravitropism in Arabidopsis shoots depends on the sedimentation of amyloplasts in the endodermis, and a complex interplay between the vacuole and F-actin. Gravity response is inhibited in zigzag-1 (zig-1), a mutant allele of VTI11, which encodes a SNARE protein involved in vacuole fusion. zig-1 seedlings have fragmented vacuoles that fuse after treatment with wortmannin, an ...

Ethylene and auxin interaction in the control of adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana

Adventitious roots (ARs) are post-embryonic roots essential for plant survival and propagation. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the auxin that controls AR formation; however, its precursor indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is known to enhance it. Ethylene affects many auxin-dependent processes by affecting IAA synthesis, transport and/or signaling, but its role in AR formation has not been ...

Efficient acquisition of iron confers greater tolerance to saline-alkaline stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

To elucidate the mechanisms underlying tolerance to saline-alkaline stress in two rice genotypes, Dongdao-4 and Jigeng-88, we exposed them to medium supplemented with 10 mM Na2CO3 and 40 mM NaCl (pH 8.5). Dongdao-4 plants displayed higher biomass, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic rates, and a larger root system than Jigeng-88 under saline-alkaline conditions. Dongdao-4 had a ...

Rice aleurone layer specific OsNF-YB1 regulates grain filling and endosperm development by interacting with an ERF transcription factor

Grain yield and quality of rice mainly depend on grain filling and endosperm development. Here we report that a rice NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factor, OsNF-YB1, is specifically expressed in the aleurone layer of developing endosperm and regulates grain filling and endosperm development. Knockdown of OsNF-YB1 expression by RNAi significantly retarded grain filling, ...

UMAMIT14 is an amino acid exporter involved in phloem unloading in Arabidopsis roots

Amino acids are the main form of nitrogen transported between the plant organs. Transport of amino acids across membranes is mediated by specialized proteins: importers, exporters, and facilitators. Unlike amino acid importers, amino acid exporters have not been thoroughly studied, partly due to a lack of high-throughput techniques enabling their isolation. Usually Multiple Acids ...

Biomechanical, biochemical, and morphological mechanisms of heat shock-mediated germination in Carica papaya seed

Carica papaya (papaya) seed germinate readily fresh from the fruit, but desiccation induces a dormant state. Dormancy can be released by exposure of the hydrated seed to a pulse of elevated temperature, typical of that encountered in its tropical habitat. Carica papaya is one of only a few species known to germinate in response to heat shock (HS) and we know little of the ...

Multiple phytohormones promote root hair elongation by regulating a similar set of genes in the root epidermis in Arabidopsis

Multiple phytohormones, including auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin, play vital roles in regulating cell development in the root epidermis. However, their interactions in specific root hair cell developmental stages are largely unexplored. To bridge this gap, we employed genetic and pharmacological approaches as well as transcriptional analysis in order to dissect their distinct and ...

Cytokinin activity increases stomatal density and transpiration rate in tomato

Previous studies on cytokinin (CK) and drought have suggested that the hormone has positive and negative effects on plant adaptation to restrictive conditions. This study examined the effect of CK on transpiration, stomatal activity, and response to drought in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Transgenic tomato plants overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana CK-degrading enzyme ...

Comprehensive proteomic analysis of developing protein bodies in maize (Zea mays) endosperm provides novel insights into its biogenesis

Prolamins, the major cereal seed storage proteins, are sequestered and accumulated in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and are directly assembled into protein bodies (PBs). The content and composition of prolamins are the key determinants for protein quality and texture-related traits of the grain. Concomitantly, the PB-inducing fusion system provides an efficient ...

ABA-dependent control of GIGANTEA signalling enables drought escape via up-regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T in Arabidopsis thaliana

One strategy deployed by plants to endure water scarcity is to accelerate the transition to flowering adaptively via the drought escape (DE) response. In Arabidopsis thaliana, activation of the DE response requires the photoperiodic response gene GIGANTEA (GI) and the florigen genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF). The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is also ...

Brassinosteroids modulate ABA-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis

Stomatal movement in response to water availability is an important physiological process in the survival of land plants. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate stomatal closure. The physiological functions of ABA and BRs, including germination, cell elongation and stomatal movement, are generally known to be antagonistic. Here, we investigated ...

The ratio of Zn to Cd supply as a determinant of metal-homeostasis gene expression in tobacco and its modulation by overexpressing the metal exporter AtHMA4

This study links changes in the tobacco endogenous metal-homeostasis network caused by transgene expression with engineering of novel features. It also provides insight into the concentration-dependent mutual interactions between Zn and Cd, leading to differences in the metal partitioning between wild-type and transgenic plants. In tobacco, expression of the export protein AtHMA4 ...

Tomato HAIRY MERISTEM genes are involved in meristem maintenance and compound leaf morphogenesis

The HAIRY MERISTEM (HAM) genes function in meristem maintenance but play minor roles in the morphogenesis of a simple leaf that is determinate. Here, we functionally analyzed HAM genes in tomato and uncovered their involvement in compound leaf morphogenesis. Tomato encodes three HAM homologs, of which SlHAM and SlHAM2 (SlHAMs) are guided for cleavage by microRNA171 and are abundant ...

Plant growth responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 are increased by phosphorus sufficiency but not by arbuscular mycorrhizas

Capturing the full growth potential in crops under future elevated CO2 (eCO2) concentrations would be facilitated by improved understanding of eCO2 effects on uptake and use of mineral nutrients. This study investigates interactions of eCO2, soil phosphorus (P), and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in Medicago truncatula and Brachypodium distachyon grown under the same ...

Arabidopsis SYT1 maintains stability of cortical endoplasmic reticulum networks and VAP27-1-enriched endoplasmic reticulum–plasma membrane contact sites

Arabidopsis synaptotagmin 1 (SYT1) is localized on the endoplasmic reticulum–plasma membrane (ER–PM) contact sites in leaf and root cells. The ER–PM localization of Arabidopsis SYT1 resembles that of the extended synaptotagmins (E-SYTs) in animal cells. In mammals, E-SYTs have been shown to regulate calcium signaling, lipid transfer, and endocytosis. Arabidopsis SYT1 was reported ...

Involvement of reactive oxygen species in lanthanum-induced inhibition of primary root growth

Although lanthanum (La) has been used as an agricultural plant growth stimulant for approximately 50 years, high concentrations are toxic to plants. Despite significant advances in recent years, the mechanisms underlying the effects of La on root system development remain unclear. Here, we report that a high concentration of La inhibits primary root (PR) elongation and induces ...

Reactive electrophilic oxylipins trigger a heat stress-like response through HSFA1 transcription factors

Abiotic and biotic stresses are often characterized by an induction of reactive electrophile species (RES) such as the jasmonate 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) or the structurally related phytoprostanes. Previously, RES oxylipins have been shown massively to induce heat-shock-response (HSR) genes including HSP101 chaperones. Moreover, jasmonates have been reported to play a role ...

Robust phenotyping strategies for evaluation of stem non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in rice

Rice plants (Oryza sativa) accumulate excess photoassimilates in the form of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in their stems prior to heading that can later be mobilized to supplement photosynthate production during grain-filling. Despite longstanding interest in stem NSC for rice improvement, the dynamics of NSC accumulation, remobilization, and re-accumulation that have ...

FIE, a nuclear PRC2 protein, forms cytoplasmic complexes in Arabidopsis thaliana

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are evolutionarily conserved chromatin modifiers that regulate developmental pathways in plants. PcGs form nuclear multi-subunit Polycomb Repressive Complexes (PRCs). The PRC2 complex mediates gene repression via methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3, which consequently leads to chromatin condensation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, several PRC2 complexes ...

Visualization of specific repetitive genomic sequences with fluorescent TALEs in Arabidopsis thaliana

Live imaging of the dynamics of nuclear organization provides the opportunity to uncover the mechanisms responsible for four-dimensional genome architecture. Here, we describe the use of fluorescent protein (FP) fusions of transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) to visualize endogenous genomic sequences in Arabidopsis thaliana. The ability to engineer sequence-specific TALEs ...

Dynamics of cell wall assembly during early embryogenesis in the brown alga Fucus

Zygotes from Fucus species have been used extensively to study cell polarization and rhizoid outgrowth, and in this model system cell wall deposition aligns with the establishment of polarity. Monoclonal antibodies are essential tools for the in situ analysis of cell wall glycans, and here we report the characteristics of six monoclonal antibodies to alginates (BAM6–BAM11). The use ...

A flow cytometric method for estimating S-phase duration in plants

The duration of the DNA synthesis stage (S phase) of the cell cycle is fundamental in our understanding of cell cycle kinetics, cell proliferation, and DNA replication timing programs. Most S-phase duration estimates that exist for plants are based on indirect measurements. We present a method for directly estimating S-phase duration by pulse-labeling root tips or actively dividing ...