European Radiology

http://link.springer.com/journal/330

List of Papers (Total 660)

Diffusion-weighted imaging for assessment of synovial inflammation in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a promising imaging biomarker as an alternative to gadolinium-based contrast agents

Objectives To compare dynamic-contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in quantifying synovial inflammation in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn in the synovium of JIA patients on T1 DCE and T2 DWI, followed by extraction of the maximum enhancement (ME), maximum initial slope (MIS), time to peak (TTP), % of ...

Size matters: The width and location of a ureteral stone accurately predict the chance of spontaneous passage

Objectives To determine how to most accurately predict the chance of spontaneous passage of a ureteral stone using information in the diagnostic non-enhanced computed tomography (NECT) and to create predictive models with smaller stone size intervals than previously possible. Methods Retrospectively 392 consecutive patients with ureteric stone on NECT were included. Three ...

Ultrasound imaging of the thenar motor branch of the median nerve: a cadaveric study

Introduction Anatomic variations of the median nerve (MN) increase the risk of iatrogenic injury during carpal tunnel release surgery. We investigated whether high-frequency ultrasonography could identify anatomic variations of the MN and its thenar motor branch (MBMN) in the carpal tunnel. Methods For each volar wrist of healthy non-embalmed cadavers, the type of MN variant (Lanz ...

The effect of four-phasic versus three-phasic contrast media injection protocols on extravasation rate in coronary CT angiography: a randomized controlled trial

Objectives Contrast media (CM) extravasation is a well-known complication of CT angiography (CTA). Our prospective randomized control study aimed to assess whether a four-phasic CM administration protocol reduces the risk of extravasation compared to the routinely used three-phasic protocol in coronary CTA. Methods Patients referred to coronary CTA due to suspected coronary artery ...

Diagnosis of bronchiectasis and airway wall thickening in children with cystic fibrosis: Objective airway-artery quantification

Objectives To quantify airway and artery (AA)-dimensions in cystic fibrosis (CF) and control patients for objective CT diagnosis of bronchiectasis and airway wall thickness (AWT). Methods Spirometer-guided inspiratory and expiratory CTs of 11 CF and 12 control patients were collected retrospectively. Airway pathways were annotated semi-automatically to reconstruct three-dimensional ...

Interim heterogeneity changes measured using entropy texture features on T2-weighted MRI at 3.0 T are associated with pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in primary breast cancer

Objectives To investigate whether interim changes in hetereogeneity (measured using entropy features) on MRI were associated with pathological residual cancer burden (RCB) at final surgery in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for primary breast cancer. Methods This was a retrospective study of 88 consenting women (age: 30–79 years). Scanning was performed on a 3.0 T ...

MRI findings in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer: does dutasteride make MRI visible lesions less conspicuous? Results from a placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial

Objectives To investigate changes in the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer taking dutasteride 0.5 mg or placebo. Methods We analysed 37 men, randomised to 6 months of daily dutasteride (n = 18) or placebo (n = 19), undergoing 3T multi-parametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mpMRI) scans at ...

Advanced myocardial tissue characterisation by a multi-component CMR protocol in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Objectives Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are at increased risk of suffering from adverse cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) mapping techniques might be appropriate tools to complement late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) for the assessment of myocardial involvement. This study aimed to perform advanced myocardial tissue characterisation in RA patients ...

Differences in tibial subchondral bone structure evaluated using plain radiographs between knees with and without cartilage damage or bone marrow lesions - the Oulu Knee Osteoarthritis study

Objectives To investigate whether subchondral bone structure from plain radiographs is different between subjects with and without articular cartilage damage or bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Methods Radiography-based bone structure was assessed from 80 subjects with different stages of knee osteoarthritis using entropy of Laplacian-based image (ELap) and local binary patterns (ELBP), ...

Malignancy estimation of Lung-RADS criteria for subsolid nodules on CT: accuracy of low and high risk spectrum when using NLST nodules

Purpose Lung-RADS proposes malignancy probabilities for categories 2 (<1%) and 4B (>15%). The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare malignancy rates for Lung-RADS 2 and 4B subsolid nodules (SSNs) on a nodule base. Methods We identified all baseline SSNs eligible for Lung-RADS 2 and 4B in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) database. Solid cores and nodule locations ...

FLAIR* to visualize veins in white matter lesions: A new tool for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis?

Objective To explore the potential of a post-processing technique combining FLAIR and T2* (FLAIR*) to distinguish between lesions caused by multiple sclerosis (MS) from cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) in a clinical setting. Methods FLAIR and T2* head datasets acquired at 3T of 25 people with relapsing MS (pwRMS) and ten with pwSVD were used. After post-processing, FLAIR* maps ...

Percutaneous MR-guided focal cryoablation for recurrent prostate cancer following radiation therapy: retrospective analysis of iceball margins and outcomes

Objectives To evaluate iceball margins after magnetic resonance (MR)-guided focal salvage prostate cryoablation and determine the correlation with local outcome. Methods A retrospective review was performed on 47 patients that underwent percutaneous MR-guided focal cryoablation for biopsy-proven locally recurrent prostate cancer after primary radiotherapy. Preprocedural diagnostic ...

Arterial spin labeling-based Z-maps have high specificity and positive predictive value for neurodegenerative dementia compared to FDG-PET

Objective Cerebral perfusion analysis based on arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI has been proposed as an alternative to FDG-PET in patients with neurodegenerative disease. Z-maps show normal distribution values relating an image to a database of controls. They are routinely used for FDG-PET to demonstrate disease-specific patterns of hypometabolism at the individual level. This ...

Accuracy of bone mineral density quantification using dual-layer spectral detector CT: a phantom study

Objectives To investigate the accuracy of bone mineral density (BMD) quantification using dual-layer spectral detector CT (SDCT) at various scan protocols. Methods Two validated anthropomorphic phantoms containing inserts of 50–200 mg/cm3 calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) were scanned using a 64-slice SDCT scanner at various acquisition protocols (120 and 140 kVp, and 50, 100 and 200 ...

Diagnostic performance of a CT-based scoring system for diagnosis of anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy: comparison with subjective CT assessment

Objective To develop a CT-based prediction score for anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy and compare it to subjective CT interpretation. Methods Consecutive patients who underwent a CT scan for a clinical suspicion of anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy with cervical anastomosis between 2003 and 2014 were analyzed. The CT scans were systematically re-evaluated by two ...

Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging techniques for treatment response evaluation in patients with high-grade glioma, a systematic review and meta-analysis

Objective Treatment response assessment in high-grade gliomas uses contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRI, but is unreliable. Novel advanced MRI techniques have been studied, but the accuracy is not well known. Therefore, we performed a systematic meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy of anatomical and advanced MRI for treatment response in high-grade gliomas. Methods ...

CT perfusion imaging of the liver and the spleen in patients with cirrhosis: Is there a correlation between perfusion and portal venous hypertension?

Objectives To correlate hepatic and splenic CT perfusion parameters with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurements in patients with cirrhosis. Methods Twenty-one patients with cirrhosis (males, 17; females, 4; mean ± SD age, 57 ± 7 years) underwent hepatic and splenic perfusion CT on a 320-detector row volume scanner as well as invasive measurement of HVPG. Different CT ...

Malignancy risk estimation of screen-detected nodules at baseline CT: comparison of the PanCan model, Lung-RADS and NCCN guidelines

Objectives To compare the PanCan model, Lung-RADS and the 1.2016 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for discriminating malignant from benign pulmonary nodules on baseline screening CT scans and the impact diameter measurement methods have on performances. Methods From the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial database, 64 CTs with malignant nodules and 549 ...

The effect of hippocampal function, volume and connectivity on posterior cingulate cortex functioning during episodic memory fMRI in mild cognitive impairment

Objectives Diminished function of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a typical finding in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is hypothesized that in early stage AD, PCC functioning relates to or reflects hippocampal dysfunction or atrophy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hippocampus function, volume and structural connectivity, and PCC activation ...

Primary and metastatic ovarian cancer: Characterization by 3.0T diffusion-weighted MRI

Objectives We aimed to investigate whether apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) measured by 3.0T diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) associate with histological aggressiveness of ovarian cancer (OC) or predict the clinical outcome. This prospective study enrolled 40 patients with primary OC, treated 2011-2014. Methods DWI was performed prior to surgery. Two ...

A simple classification system (the Tree flowchart) for breast MRI can reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in MRI-only lesions

Objectives To assess whether using the Tree flowchart obviates unnecessary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided biopsies in breast lesions only visible on MRI. Methods This retrospective IRB-approved study evaluated consecutive suspicious (BI-RADS 4) breast lesions only visible on MRI that were referred to our institution for MRI-guided biopsy. All lesions were evaluated ...

Renal artery and parenchymal changes after renal denervation: assessment by magnetic resonance angiography

Objectives Relatively little is known about the incidence of long-term renal damage after renal denervation (RDN), a potential new treatment for hypertension. In this study the incidence of renal artery and parenchymal changes, assessed with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) after RDN, is investigated. Methods This study is an initiative of ENCOReD, a ...