Sports Medicine

http://link.springer.com/journal/40279

List of Papers (Total 215)

Do We Need a Cool-Down After Exercise? A Narrative Review of the Psychophysiological Effects and the Effects on Performance, Injuries and the Long-Term Adaptive Response

It is widely believed that an active cool-down is more effective for promoting post-exercise recovery than a passive cool-down involving no activity. However, research on this topic has never been synthesized and it therefore remains largely unknown whether this belief is correct. This review compares the effects of various types of active cool-downs with passive cool-downs on...

Assessment of Skeletal Muscle Contractile Properties by Radial Displacement: The Case for Tensiomyography

Skeletal muscle operates as a near-constant volume system; as such muscle shortening during contraction is transversely linked to radial deformation. Therefore, to assess contractile properties of skeletal muscle, radial displacement can be evoked and measured. Mechanomyography measures muscle radial displacement and during the last 20 years, tensiomyography has become the most...

Exercise Professionals with Advanced Clinical Training Should be Afforded Greater Responsibility in Pre-Participation Exercise Screening: A New Collaborative Model between Exercise Professionals and Physicians

Regular exercise improves health but can also induce adverse responses. Although such episodes are rare, many guidelines for pre-participation exercise screening have historically had a low threshold for recommending medical clearance prior to the commencement of exercise, placing the responsibility for decision making about exercise participation on physicians. The ‘clearance to...

Upper Respiratory Symptoms, Gut Health and Mucosal Immunity in Athletes

Upper respiratory symptoms remain the most common illness in athletes. Upper respiratory symptoms during heavy training and competition may impair performance. Preventing illness is the primary reason for the use of supplements, such as probiotics and prebiotics, for maintaining or promoting gut health and immune function. While exercise-induced perturbations in the immune system...

Administration of Caffeine in Alternate Forms

There has been recent interest in the ergogenic effects of caffeine delivered in low doses (~ 200 mg or ~ 3 mg/kg body mass) and administered in forms other than capsules, coffee and sports drinks, including chewing gum, bars, gels, mouth rinses, energy drinks and aerosols. Caffeinated chewing gum is absorbed quicker through the buccal mucosa compared with capsule delivery and...

Assessing the Role of Muscle Protein Breakdown in Response to Nutrition and Exercise in Humans

Muscle protein breakdown (MPB) is an important metabolic component of muscle remodeling, adaptation to training, and increasing muscle mass. Degradation of muscle proteins occurs via the integration of three main systems—autophagy and the calpain and ubiquitin-proteasome systems. These systems do not operate independently, and the regulation is complex. Complete degradation of a...

Does Cold Water or Ice Slurry Ingestion During Exercise Elicit a Net Body Cooling Effect in the Heat?

Cold water or ice slurry ingestion during exercise seems to be an effective and practical means to improve endurance exercise performance in the heat. However, transient reductions in sweating appear to decrease the potential for evaporative heat loss from the skin by a magnitude that at least negates the additional internal heat loss as a cold ingested fluid warms up to...

Injuries in Field Hockey Players: A Systematic Review

Background To commence injury prevention efforts, it is necessary to understand the magnitude of the injury problem. No systematic reviews have yet investigated the extent of injuries in field hockey, despite the popularity of the sport worldwide. Objective Our objective was to describe the rate and severity of injuries in field hockey and investigate their characteristics...

The Incidence of Injury in Amateur Male Rugby Union: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Background Rugby union is a physically demanding, full-contact team sport that has gained worldwide popularity. The incidence of injury in rugby union has been widely reported in the literature. While comprehensive injury surveillance and prevention programmes have been implemented within the professional game, there is a need for similar strategies in the amateur game. Despite...

A Multinational Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of ‘11+ Kids’: A Warm-Up Programme to Prevent Injuries in Children’s Football

Objective The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a newly developed warm-up programme (‘11+ Kids’) regarding its potential to reduce injuries in children’s football. Methods Children’s football teams (under 9 years, under 11 years, and under 13 years age groups) from Switzerland, Germany, the Czech Republic and the Netherlands were invited. Clubs were randomised...

Effects of Strength Training on the Physiological Determinants of Middle- and Long-Distance Running Performance: A Systematic Review

Background Middle- and long-distance running performance is constrained by several important aerobic and anaerobic parameters. The efficacy of strength training (ST) for distance runners has received considerable attention in the literature. However, to date, the results of these studies have not been fully synthesized in a review on the topic. Objectives This systematic review...

Return to Sport in Athletes with Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy: A Qualitative Systematic Review Regarding Definitions and Criteria

Background Midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT) can cause long-term absence from sports participation, and shows high recurrence rates. It is important that the decision to return to sport (RTS) is made carefully, based on sharply delimited criteria. Lack of a well-defined definition and criteria hampers the decision to RTS among athletes with AT, and impedes comparison of RTS...

Periodization Theory: Confronting an Inconvenient Truth

Periodization theory has, over the past seven decades, emerged as the preeminent training planning paradigm. The philosophical underpinnings of periodization theory can be traced back to the integration of diverse shaping influences, whereby coaching beliefs and traditions were blended with historically available scientific insights and contextualized against pervading social...

Sport-Related Concussion and Mental Health Outcomes in Elite Athletes: A Systematic Review

Background Elite athletes can experience a diverse range of symptoms following post-concussive injury. The impact of sport-related concussion on specific mental health outcomes is unclear in this population. Objective The aim was to appraise the evidence base regarding the association between sport-related concussion and mental health outcomes in athletes competing at elite and...

The Effect of Head-to-Head Competition on Behavioural Thermoregulation, Thermophysiological Strain and Performance During Exercise in the Heat

BackgroundIt has been suggested that pacing is a thermoregulatory behaviour. We investigated the effect of competition on pacing, performance and thermophysiological strain during exercise in the heat and the psychological factors mediating competition effects.MethodEighteen males (maximum oxygen uptake [V O 2max] 3.69 [0.44] L min−1) undertook a preliminary 20-km cool (wet-bulb...