European Journal of Epidemiology

http://link.springer.com/journal/10654

List of Papers (Total 338)

Plant versus animal based diets and insulin resistance, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: the Rotterdam Study

Vegan or vegetarian diets have been suggested to reduce type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. However, not much is known on whether variation in the degree of having a plant-based versus animal-based diet may be beneficial for prevention of T2D. We aimed to investigate whether level of adherence to a diet high in plant-based foods and low in animal-based foods is associated with insulin...

Flexible sigmoidoscopy in colorectal cancer screening: implications of different colonoscopy referral strategies

Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) screening reduces colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. Its potential to detect proximal neoplasms depends on colonoscopy referral. We estimated diagnostic performance of sigmoidoscopy using 12 different referral criteria in detecting colorectal cancer and advanced adenomas. Colonoscopy results from 14,947 participants of screening colonoscopy in...

Causal null hypotheses of sustained treatment strategies: What can be tested with an instrumental variable?

Sometimes instrumental variable methods are used to test whether a causal effect is null rather than to estimate the magnitude of a causal effect. However, when instrumental variable methods are applied to time-varying exposures, as in many Mendelian randomization studies, it is unclear what causal null hypothesis is tested. Here, we consider different versions of causal null...

From John Snow to omics: the long journey of environmental epidemiology

A major difference between infectious and non-communicable diseases is that infectious diseases typically have unique necessary causes whereas noncommunicable diseases have multiple causes which by themselves are usually neither necessary nor sufficient. Epidemiology seems to have reached a limit in disentangling the role of single components in causal complexes, particularly at...

Body mass index, abdominal fatness, weight gain and the risk of psoriasis: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies

Greater body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk of psoriasis in case–control and cross-sectional studies, however, the evidence from prospective studies has been limited. We conducted a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of different adiposity measures and the risk of psoriasis to provide a more robust summary of the evidence based on data...

Serum magnesium and risk of incident heart failure in older men: The British Regional Heart Study

To examine the association between serum magnesium and incident heart failure (HF) in older men and investigate potential pathways including cardiac function, inflammation and lung function. Prospective study of 3523 men aged 60–79 years with no prevalent HF or myocardial infarction followed up for a mean period of 15 years, during which 268 incident HF cases were ascertained...

One- and two-stage surgical revision of peri-prosthetic joint infection of the hip: a pooled individual participant data analysis of 44 cohort studies

One-stage and two-stage revision strategies are the two main options for treating established chronic peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the hip; however, there is uncertainty regarding which is the best treatment option. We aimed to compare the risk of re-infection between the two revision strategies using pooled individual participant data (IPD). Observational cohort...

Antenatal non-medical risk assessment and care pathways to improve pregnancy outcomes: a cluster randomised controlled trial

Social deprivation negatively affects health outcomes but receives little attention in obstetric risk selection. We investigated whether a combination of (1) risk assessment focused on non-medical risk factors, lifestyle factors, and medical risk factors, with (2) subsequent institution of risk-specific care pathways, and (3) multidisciplinary consultation between care providers...

Sedentary behaviour and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality, and incident type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose response meta-analysis

Purpose: To estimate the strength and shape of the dose–response relationship between sedentary behaviour and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality, and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), adjusted for physical activity (PA). Data Sources: Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar (through September-2016); reference lists...

The combination of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength, and mortality risk

Little is known about the combined associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and hand grip strength (GS) with mortality in general adult populations. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative risk of mortality for CRF, GS, and their combination. In UK Biobank, a prospective cohort of > 0.5 million adults aged 40–69 years, CRF was measured through submaximal bike...

The importance of endpoint selection: How effective does a drug need to be for success in a clinical trial of a possible Alzheimer’s disease treatment?

To date, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) clinical trials have been largely unsuccessful. Failures have been attributed to a number of factors including ineffective drugs, inadequate targets, and poor trial design, of which the choice of endpoint is crucial. Using data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, we have calculated the minimum detectable effect size (MDES) in...

Estimation of causal effect measures with the <Emphasis FontCategory=

Measures of causal effects play a central role in epidemiology. A wide range of measures exist, which are designed to give relevant answers to substantive epidemiological research questions. However, due to mathematical convenience and software limitations most studies only report odds ratios for binary outcomes and hazard ratios for time-to-event outcomes. In this paper we show...

The PanCareSurFup cohort of 83,333 five-year survivors of childhood cancer: a cohort from 12 European countries

Childhood cancer survivors face risks from a variety of late effects, including cardiac events, second cancers, and late mortality. The aim of the pan-European PanCare Childhood and Adolescent Cancer Survivor Care and Follow-Up Studies (PanCareSurFup) Consortium was to collect data on incidence and risk factors for these late effects among childhood cancer survivors in Europe...

Allostatic load and subsequent all-cause mortality: which biological markers drive the relationship? Findings from a UK birth cohort

The concept of allostatic load (AL) refers to the idea of a global physiological ‘wear and tear’ resulting from the adaptation to the environment through the stress response systems over the life span. The link between socioeconomic position (SEP) and mortality has now been established, and there is evidence that AL may capture the link between SEP and mortality. In order to...

Body mass index, abdominal fatness, and the risk of sudden cardiac death: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies

Although overweight and obesity are established risk factors for some types of heart disease including ischemic heart disease, heart failure and atrial fibrillation, less is known about the association between adiposity and sudden cardiac death. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to clarify the association between adiposity and risk of...

Tobacco smoking and the risk of sudden cardiac death: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies

Smoking is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease including coronary heart disease and stroke, however, data regarding smoking and sudden cardiac death have not been summarized in a meta-analysis previously. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify this association. We searched the PubMed and Embase databases for studies of smoking...

Smoking and susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in a Swedish population-based case–control study

Smoking is one of the most established risk factors for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to estimate how age at smoking debut, smoking cessation, duration, intensity, and cumulative dose of smoking influence the risk of developing anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) positive and ACPA negative RA. The present report is based on a Swedish population...

Coffee or Tea? A prospective cohort study on the associations of coffee and tea intake with overall and cause-specific mortality in men versus women

Coffee and tea intake have been associated with reduced mortality, but no studies have investigated possible substitution effects. The relationship of mortality with coffee, tea, and substituting coffee with tea was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. In 1986, 120,852 men and women aged 55–69 years provided information on dietary and lifestyle habits. Mortality follow...

Accordance to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet pattern and cardiovascular disease in a British, population-based cohort

The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet could be an important population-level strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the UK, but there is little UK-based evidence on this diet pattern in relation to CVD risk. We tested whether dietary accordance with DASH was associated with risk of CVD in a population-based sample of 23,655 UK adults. This...

A network meta-analysis on the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

The aim of the present study is to assess the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using a systematic review of the literature. Electronic and hand searches were performed until July 2017. The inclusion criteria were defined as follows: (1) randomized trial with a dietary approach; (2) adults with type...

Association between investigator-measured body-mass index and colorectal adenoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 168,201 subjects

The objective of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the odds of colorectal adenoma (CRA) in colorectal cancer screening participants with different body mass index (BMI) levels, and examine if this association was different according to gender and ethnicity. The EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched to enroll high quality observational studies that examined the association between...

Effect of retirement on cognitive function: the Whitehall II cohort study

According to the ‘use it or lose it’ hypothesis, a lack of mentally challenging activities might exacerbate the loss of cognitive function. On this basis, retirement has been suggested to increase the risk of cognitive decline, but evidence from studies with long follow-up is lacking. We tested this hypothesis in a cohort of 3433 civil servants who participated in the Whitehall...

Weight change and 15 year mortality: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) cohort study

Studies have reported a higher mortality risk associated with weight loss, particularly in middle-aged and older adults, although some of these studies did find that gaining weight was also associated with an increased mortality risk. We examined changes in weight in relation to mortality in a prospective population-based cohort study of men and women, resident in Norfolk, UK...

E-cigarette and waterpipe use in two adolescent cohorts: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with conventional cigarette smoking

Alternative tobacco products are increasing in popularity. An important question is whether their use is associated with or even leads to conventional smoking, but large-scale (European) studies are scarce. In two cohorts of Dutch adolescents (Cohort I n = 6819, mean age = 13.8 SD = 1.1, 48.2% female; Cohort II n = 2758, mean age = 17.3 SD = 1.8, 61.3% female), we investigated...

Measures of subclinical cardiac dysfunction and increased filling pressures associate with pulmonary arterial pressure in the general population: results from the population-based Rotterdam Study

Pulmonary hypertension is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in the elderly population. Heart failure is a common cause of pulmonary hypertension. Yet, the relation between left heart parameters reflective of subclinical cardiac dysfunction and increased filling pressures, and pulmonary arterial pressures in the elderly population remains elusive. Within the...