European Journal of Epidemiology

http://link.springer.com/journal/10654

List of Papers (Total 321)

Tobacco smoking and the risk of sudden cardiac death: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies

Smoking is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease including coronary heart disease and stroke, however, data regarding smoking and sudden cardiac death have not been summarized in a meta-analysis previously. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify this association. We searched the PubMed and Embase databases for studies of smoking and ...

Accordance to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet pattern and cardiovascular disease in a British, population-based cohort

The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet could be an important population-level strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the UK, but there is little UK-based evidence on this diet pattern in relation to CVD risk. We tested whether dietary accordance with DASH was associated with risk of CVD in a population-based sample of 23,655 UK adults. This prospective ...

A network meta-analysis on the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

The aim of the present study is to assess the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using a systematic review of the literature. Electronic and hand searches were performed until July 2017. The inclusion criteria were defined as follows: (1) randomized trial with a dietary approach; (2) adults with type 2 ...

Association between investigator-measured body-mass index and colorectal adenoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 168,201 subjects

The objective of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the odds of colorectal adenoma (CRA) in colorectal cancer screening participants with different body mass index (BMI) levels, and examine if this association was different according to gender and ethnicity. The EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched to enroll high quality observational studies that examined the association between ...

Effect of retirement on cognitive function: the Whitehall II cohort study

According to the ‘use it or lose it’ hypothesis, a lack of mentally challenging activities might exacerbate the loss of cognitive function. On this basis, retirement has been suggested to increase the risk of cognitive decline, but evidence from studies with long follow-up is lacking. We tested this hypothesis in a cohort of 3433 civil servants who participated in the Whitehall II ...

Weight change and 15 year mortality: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) cohort study

Studies have reported a higher mortality risk associated with weight loss, particularly in middle-aged and older adults, although some of these studies did find that gaining weight was also associated with an increased mortality risk. We examined changes in weight in relation to mortality in a prospective population-based cohort study of men and women, resident in Norfolk, UK. ...

E-cigarette and waterpipe use in two adolescent cohorts: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with conventional cigarette smoking

Alternative tobacco products are increasing in popularity. An important question is whether their use is associated with or even leads to conventional smoking, but large-scale (European) studies are scarce. In two cohorts of Dutch adolescents (Cohort I n = 6819, mean age = 13.8 SD = 1.1, 48.2% female; Cohort II n = 2758, mean age = 17.3 SD = 1.8, 61.3% female), we investigated use ...

Measures of subclinical cardiac dysfunction and increased filling pressures associate with pulmonary arterial pressure in the general population: results from the population-based Rotterdam Study

Pulmonary hypertension is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in the elderly population. Heart failure is a common cause of pulmonary hypertension. Yet, the relation between left heart parameters reflective of subclinical cardiac dysfunction and increased filling pressures, and pulmonary arterial pressures in the elderly population remains elusive. Within the ...

Gestational age at birth and risk of intellectual disability without a common genetic cause

Preterm birth is linked to intellectual disability and there is evidence to suggest post-term birth may also incur risk. However, these associations have not yet been investigated in the absence of common genetic causes of intellectual disability, where risk associated with late delivery may be preventable. We therefore aimed to examine risk of intellectual disability without a ...

Serum metabolites and risk of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke: a targeted metabolomic approach in two German prospective cohorts

Metabolomic approaches in prospective cohorts may offer a unique snapshot into early metabolic perturbations that are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in healthy people. We investigated the association of 105 serum metabolites, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, phospholipids and hexose, with risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke ...

Physical activity and the risk of hip fracture in the elderly: a prospective cohort study

Physical activity has been inversely associated with the risk of hip fracture, however, few studies have been conducted on the contributions from different domains of physical activity. This study was performed to investigate the association between daily household activities, leisure time physical activity, work-related physical activity and total physical activity during a 24-h ...

The Swedish cause of death register

Sweden has a long tradition of recording cause of death data. The Swedish cause of death register is a high quality virtually complete register of all deaths in Sweden since 1952. Although originally created for official statistics, it is a highly important data source for medical research since it can be linked to many other national registers, which contain data on social and ...

Mother’s education and offspring asthma risk in 10 European cohort studies

Highly prevalent and typically beginning in childhood, asthma is a burdensome disease, yet the risk factors for this condition are not clarified. To enhance understanding, this study assessed the cohort-specific and pooled risk of maternal education on asthma in children aged 3–8 across 10 European countries. Data on 47,099 children were obtained from prospective birth cohort ...

Sleep duration, mortality and the influence of age

Prior work has shown that both short and long sleep predict mortality. However, sleep duration decreases with age and this may affect the relationship of sleep duration with mortality. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether the association between sleep duration and mortality varies with age. Prospective cohort study. 43,863 individuals (64% women), recruited in ...

Adherence to the 2015 Dutch dietary guidelines and risk of non-communicable diseases and mortality in the Rotterdam Study

We aimed to evaluate the criterion validity of the 2015 food-based Dutch dietary guidelines, which were formulated based on evidence on the relation between diet and major chronic diseases. We studied 9701 participants of the Rotterdam Study, a population-based prospective cohort in individuals aged 45 years and over [median 64.1 years (95%-range 49.0–82.8)]. Dietary intake was ...

Social justice, epidemiology and health inequalities

A lifetime spent studying how social determinants of health lead to health inequalities has clarified many issues. First is that social stratification is an appropriate topic of study for epidemiologists. To ignore it would be to ignore a major source of variation in health in society. Not only is the social gradient in health appropriate to study but we have made progress both in ...

Statistical science: a grammar for research

I greatly appreciate the invitation to give this lecture with its century long history. The title is a warning that the lecture is rather discursive and not highly focused and technical. The theme is simple. That statistical thinking provides a unifying set of general ideas and specific methods relevant whenever appreciable natural variation is present. To be most fruitful these ...

Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and risk of fractures: a prospective cohort study and meta-analysis of published observational cohort studies

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) represents an important target of antihypertensive medications. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), which are widely-used RAS inhibiting drugs, have been suggested to have beneficial effects on bone tissue. We aimed to assess the associations of use of ACEIs and/or ARBs with the risk of ...

Serum C-reactive protein increases the risk of venous thromboembolism: a prospective study and meta-analysis of published prospective evidence

Evolving debate suggests that C-reactive protein (CRP) might be associated with the development of venous thromboembolism (VTE); however, the evidence is conflicting. We aimed to assess the prospective association of CRP with VTE risk. C-reactive protein was measured in serum samples at baseline from 2420 men aged 42–61 years, from the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease study. ...

A possible dual effect of cigarette smoking on the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer

Smoking seems modestly associated with breast cancer, but the potential dual effect of smoking (with opposing properties: carcinogenic vs anti-estrogenic) is understudied. The relationship between smoking before and after menopause and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). In the NLCS, 62,573 women aged 55–69 years provided ...

The association between leisure-time physical activity, low HDL-cholesterol and mortality in a pooled analysis of nine population-based cohorts

The objective of this study was to investigate associations between leisure-time physical activity, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and mortality. Self-reported leisure-time physical activity, HDL-C concentration, and mortality were assessed in 37,059 adults in Health Survey for England and Scottish Health Survey. Meeting physical activity guidelines was defined as ...

Age at menarche and lung function: a Mendelian randomization study

A trend towards earlier menarche in women has been associated with childhood factors (e.g. obesity) and hypothesised environmental exposures (e.g. endocrine disruptors present in household products). Observational evidence has shown detrimental effects of early menarche on various health outcomes including adult lung function, but these might represent spurious associations due to ...