European Journal of Epidemiology

http://link.springer.com/journal/10654

List of Papers (Total 339)

The limitations of opportunistic epidemiology, pseudopod epidemiology

Epidemiology has been remarkably successful in the past in identifying the important agents of disease, the impact of the environment, both physical and social, and interrelationship with host susceptibility (genomics). Many of the advances in improving the health of individuals and populations have been the result of epidemiology studies that have identified the specific “agents...

The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam: cohort update 2016 and major findings

The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) is an ongoing longitudinal study of older adults in the Netherlands, which started in 1992. LASA is focused on the determinants, trajectories and consequences of physical, cognitive, emotional and social functioning. The study is based on a nationally representative sample of older adults aged 55 years and over. The findings of the...

Physical activity and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

Physical activity has been inconsistently associated with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in epidemiological studies, and questions remain about the strength and shape of the dose–response relationship between the two. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies and randomized trials on physical activity and gestational diabetes mellitus...

A priori and a posteriori dietary patterns at the age of 1 year and body composition at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study

Dietary patterns have been linked to obesity in adults, however, not much is known about this association in early childhood. We examined associations of different types of dietary patterns in 1-year-old children with body composition at school age in 2026 children participating in a population-based cohort study. Dietary intake at the age of 1 year was assessed with a food...

Live kidney donation: are concerns about long-term safety justified?—A methodological review

Live kidney donors are exhaustively screened pre-donation, creating a cohort inherently healthier at baseline than the general population. In recent years, three renowned research groups reported unfavourable outcomes for live kidney donors post-donation that contradicted their previous studies. Here, we compared the study design and analysis of the most recent and previous...

Maternal alcohol binge-drinking in the first trimester and the risk of orofacial clefts in offspring: a large population-based pooling study

Using individual participant data from six population-based case–control studies, we conducted pooled analyses to examine maternal alcohol consumption and the risk of clefts among >4600 infants with cleft lip only, cleft lip with cleft palate, or cleft palate only and >10,000 unaffected controls. We examined two first-trimester alcohol measures: average number of drinks/sitting...

Oral glucocorticoid therapy and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a retrospective cohort study

Previous studies of glucocorticoid (GC) therapy and mortality have had inconsistent results and have not considered possible perimortal bias—a type of protopathic bias where illness in the latter stages of life influences GC exposure, and might affect the observed relationship between GC use and death. This study aimed to investigate all-cause and cause-specific mortality in...

Statistical tests, P values, confidence intervals, and power: a guide to misinterpretations

Misinterpretation and abuse of statistical tests, confidence intervals, and statistical power have been decried for decades, yet remain rampant. A key problem is that there are no interpretations of these concepts that are at once simple, intuitive, correct, and foolproof. Instead, correct use and interpretation of these statistics requires an attention to detail which seems to...

The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms and self-employment

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms have been associated with the decision to become self-employed. Although these symptoms are generally regarded as disadvantageous, there may also be a bright side. To our knowledge, however, there has been no systematic, epidemiological evidence to support this claim. This paper examines the association between ADHD symptoms and...

Disability and all-cause mortality in the older population: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

Despite the vast body of literature studying disability and mortality, evidence to support their association is scarce. This work investigates the role of disability in explaining all‐cause mortality among individuals aged 50+ who participated in the English Longitudinal Study of Aging. The aim is to explain the gender paradox in health and mortality by analysing whether the...

How much do tumor stage and treatment explain socioeconomic inequalities in breast cancer survival? Applying causal mediation analysis to population-based data

Substantial socioeconomic inequalities in breast cancer survival persist in England, possibly due to more advanced cancer at diagnosis and differential access to treatment. We aim to disentangle the contributions of differential stage at diagnosis and differential treatment to the socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival. Information on 36,793 women diagnosed with breast...

Impact of prenatal exposure to cadmium on cognitive development at preschool age and the importance of selenium and iodine

The evidence regarding a potential link of low-to-moderate iodine deficiency, selenium status, and cadmium exposure during pregnancy with neurodevelopment is either contradicting or limited. We aimed to assess the prenatal impact of cadmium, selenium, and iodine on children’s neurodevelopment at 4 years of age. The study included 575 mother–child pairs from the prospective “Rhea...

Modifiable risk factors for the prevention of bladder cancer: a systematic review of meta-analyses

Each year, 430,000 people are diagnosed with bladder cancer. Due to the high recurrence rate of the disease, primary prevention is paramount. Therefore, we reviewed all meta-analyses on modifiable risk factors of primary bladder cancer. PubMed, Embase and Cochrane database were systematically searched for meta-analyses on modifiable risk factors published between 1995 and 2015...

Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study

Previous case–control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 472,100...

Proton pump inhibitors and gastroenteritis

An association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and bacterial gastroenteritis has been suggested as well as contradicted. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the use of PPIs and occurrence of bacterial gastroenteritis in the prospective Rotterdam Study. The Rotterdam Study is a population-based cohort study among 14,926 subjects aged 45 years...

Low serum vitamin D is associated with axial length and risk of myopia in young children

The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and axial length (AL) and myopia in 6-year-old children. A total of 2666 children aged 6 years participating in the birth-cohort study Generation R underwent a stepwise eye examination. First, presenting visual acuity (VA) and AL were performed. Second, automated cycloplegic refraction was...

Trajectories of body mass index before the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease: a latent class trajectory analysis

Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a heterogeneous group regarding their body mass index (BMI) levels at the time of diagnosis. To address the heterogeneity of CVD, we examined the trajectories of change in body mass index (BMI) and in other cardio-metabolic risk factors before CVD diagnosis. The study included 6126 participants from the prospective population-based...

Cost–benefit analysis of the polypill in the primary prevention of myocardial infarction and stroke

The primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is a public health priority. To assess the costs and benefits of a Polypill Prevention Programme using a daily 4-component polypill from age 50 in the UK, we determined the life years gained without a first myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke, together with the total service cost (or saving) and the net cost (or saving) per year...

Prevalence and incidence of COPD in smokers and non-smokers: the Rotterdam Study

COPD is the third leading cause of death in the world and its global burden is predicted to increase further. Even though the prevalence of COPD is well studied, only few studies examined the incidence of COPD in a prospective and standardized manner. In a prospective population-based cohort study (Rotterdam Study) enrolling subjects aged ≥45, COPD was diagnosed based on a pre...

Predicting Parkinson disease in the community using a nonmotor risk score

At present, there are no validated methods to identify persons who are at increased risk for Parkinson Disease (PD) from the general population. We investigated the clinical usefulness of a recently proposed non-motor risk score for PD (the PREDICT-PD risk score) in the population-based Rotterdam Study. At baseline (1990), we constructed a weighted risk score based on 10 early...

Tobacco smoking and the risk of gallbladder disease

Tobacco smoking has been inconsistently associated with gallbladder disease risk. To clarify the association we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies published on the subject. We searched the PubMed and Embase databases for studies of smoking and gallbladder disease up to January 9th 2015. Prospective studies were included if they reported relative...