European Journal of Epidemiology

http://link.springer.com/journal/10654

List of Papers (Total 338)

Detection and investigation of temporal clusters of congenital anomaly in Europe: seven years of experience of the EUROCAT surveillance system

Detection and investigation of congenital anomaly clusters is one part of surveillance to detect new or changing teratogenic exposures in the population. The EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) cluster monitoring system and results are described here. Monitoring was conducted annually from 2007 to 2013 for 18 registries covering an annual birth population up...

Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) Consortium

To estimate the prevalence of refractive error in adults across Europe. Refractive data (mean spherical equivalent) collected between 1990 and 2013 from fifteen population-based cohort and cross-sectional studies of the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) Consortium were combined in a random effects meta-analysis stratified by 5-year age intervals and gender. Participants were...

Effects of obesity and hormone therapy on surgically-confirmed fibroids in postmenopausal women

To examine the association between body mass index (BMI), use of menopausal hormone therapy (HT), and incidence of uterine fibroids in postmenopausal women, 610,604 postmenopausal women without prior hysterectomy or diagnosis of fibroids were followed as part of a large United Kingdom prospective cohort study. We used Cox regression models to calculate adjusted relative risks...

Preeclampsia in pregnancy and later use of antihypertensive drugs

We explored the association between preeclampsia and later use of antihypertensive drugs in a population-based study with data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and the Norwegian Prescription Database. The study cohort consisted of 980,000 women having 2.1 million pregnancies during 1967–2012. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) were estimated in...

Using published data in Mendelian randomization: a blueprint for efficient identification of causal risk factors

Finding individual-level data for adequately-powered Mendelian randomization analyses may be problematic. As publicly-available summarized data on genetic associations with disease outcomes from large consortia are becoming more abundant, use of published data is an attractive analysis strategy for obtaining precise estimates of the causal effects of risk factors on outcomes. We...

Challenges in conducting genome-wide association studies in highly admixed multi-ethnic populations: the Generation R Study

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying loci associated with a wide range of complex human traits and diseases. Up to now, the majority of GWAS have focused on European populations. However, the inclusion of other ethnic groups as well as admixed populations in GWAS studies is rapidly rising following the pressing need to extrapolate findings to...

Postmenopausal hormone therapy and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Swedish EIRA population-based case-control study

To study the association between postmenopausal hormone therapy (PMH) use and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) stratifying the cases by the presence/absence of antibodies against citrullinated peptides (ACPA). A subset of the Epidemiological Investigation of RA (EIRA), a population-based case-control study, comprising postmenopausal women aged 50–70 living in Sweden, between...

A confidence ellipse for the Net Reclassification Improvement

The Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI) has become a popular metric for evaluating improvement in disease prediction models through the past years. The concept is relatively straightforward but usage and interpretation has been different across studies. While no thresholds exist for evaluating the degree of improvement, many studies have relied solely on the significance of...

Targeted hepatitis C antibody testing interventions: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may reduce the risk of liver-related morbidity, by facilitating earlier access to treatment and care. This review investigated the effectiveness of targeted testing interventions on HCV case detection, treatment uptake, and prevention of liver-related morbidity. A literature search identified studies published up to 2013 that compared...

Fish consumption and mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort

Fish is a source of important nutrients and may play a role in preventing heart diseases and other health outcomes. However, studies of overall mortality and cause-specific mortality related to fish consumption are inconclusive. We examined the rate of overall mortality, as well as mortality from ischaemic heart disease and cancer in relation to the intake of total fish, lean...

Mortality benefits of population-wide adherence to national physical activity guidelines: a prospective cohort study

We quantified the mortality benefits and attributable fractions associated with engaging in physical activity across a range of levels, including those recommended by national guidelines. Data were from the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey, a population-based prospective cohort comprising 1,796 male and 2,122 female participants aged 16–96 years, randomly selected from 30...

The obesity paradox in acute coronary syndrome: a meta-analysis

In the general population, the lowest mortality risk is considered to be for the body mass index (BMI) range of 20–24.9 kg/m2. In chronic diseases (chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) the best survival is observed in overweight or obese patients. Recently above-mentioned phenomenon, called obesity paradox, has been described in...

BiomarCaRE: rationale and design of the European BiomarCaRE project including 300,000 participants from 13 European countries

Biomarkers are considered as tools to enhance cardiovascular risk estimation. However, the value of biomarkers on risk estimation beyond European risk scores, their comparative impact among different European regions and their role towards personalised medicine remains uncertain. Biomarker for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) is an European collaborative...

A critical review of the epidemiology of Agent Orange/TCDD and prostate cancer

To inform risk assessment and regulatory decision-making, the relationship between 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and prostate cancer requires clarification. This article systematically and critically reviews the epidemiologic evidence on the association between exposure to TCDD or Agent Orange, a TCDD-contaminated herbicide used during the Vietnam War, and prostate...

Quantifying the health benefits of chronic disease prevention: a fresh approach using cardiovascular disease as an example

Current methods of determining the proportion of people who benefit from a preventive intervention and the years of life gained can underestimate the former and overestimate the latter. We describe how to overcome these errors, using two examples relating to the prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, one using a specified polypill daily from age 50 and another...

A tradition and an epidemic: determinants of the campylobacteriosis winter peak in Switzerland

Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported food borne infection in Switzerland. We investigated determinants of infections and illness experience in wintertime. A case–control study was conducted in Switzerland between December 2012 and February 2013. Cases were recruited among laboratory-confirmed campylobacteriosis patients. Population-based controls were matched...

Place of upbringing in early childhood as related to inflammatory bowel diseases in adulthood: a population-based cohort study in Northern Europe

Background The two inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, has increased rapidly during the twentieth century, but the aetiology is still poorly understood. Impaired immunological competence due to decreasing biodiversity and altered microbial stimulation is a suggested explanation. Objective Place of upbringing was used as a proxy for the level...

The German National Cohort: aims, study design and organization

The German National Cohort (GNC) is a joint interdisciplinary endeavour of scientists from the Helmholtz and the Leibniz Association, universities, and other research institutes. Its aim is to investigate the causes for the development of major chronic diseases, i.e. cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative/-psychiatric diseases, musculoskeletal diseases...

Metabolomics approach reveals effects of antihypertensives and lipid-lowering drugs on the human metabolism

The mechanism of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drugs on the human organism is still not fully understood. New insights on the drugs’ action can be provided by a metabolomics-driven approach, which offers a detailed view of the physiological state of an organism. Here, we report a metabolome-wide association study with 295 metabolites in human serum from 1,762 participants...