Translational Psychiatry

http://www.nature.com/tp

List of Papers (Total 143)

MiR-9, miR-153 and miR-124 are down-regulated by acute exposure to cocaine in a dopaminergic cell model and may contribute to cocaine dependence

Cocaine is one of the most used psychostimulant drugs worldwide. MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that are highly expressed in brain, and several studies have shown that cocaine can alter their expression. In a previous study, we identified several protein-coding genes that are differentially expressed in a dopaminergic neuron-like model after an...

Common and differential transcriptional responses to different models of traumatic stress exposure in rats

The effect of six different traumatic stress protocols on the transcriptome of the rat adrenal gland was examined using RNA sequencing. These protocols included chronic variable stress, chronic shock, social defeat and social isolation. The response of the transcriptome to stress suggested that there are genes that respond in a universal or stress modality-independent manner, as...

Convergence of evidence from a methylome-wide CpG-SNP association study and GWAS of major depressive disorder

DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that provides stability and diversity to the cellular phenotype. It is influenced by both genetic sequence variation and environmental factors, and can therefore potentially account for variation of heritable phenotypes and disorders. Therefore, methylome-wide association studies (MWAS) are promising complements to genome-wide...

Proteomics for blood biomarker exploration of severe mental illness: pitfalls of the past and potential for the future

Recent improvements in high-throughput proteomic approaches are likely to constitute an essential advance in biomarker discovery, holding promise for improved personalized care and drug development. These methodologies have been applied to study multivariate protein patterns and provide valuable data of peripheral tissues. To highlight findings of the last decade for three of the...

Effect of valproate and pregabalin on human anxiety-like behaviour in a randomised controlled trial

Valproate is an anticonvulsant drug with strong preclinical evidence for reducing anxiety behaviour in rodents but no clear clinical evidence. To motivate clinical trials, we here investigate the use of valproate in a translational human model of anxiety behaviour. In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, n = 118 healthy participants played a previously validated...

Peripubertal stress increases play fighting at adolescence and modulates nucleus accumbens CB1 receptor expression and mitochondrial function in the amygdala

Play fighting is a highly rewarding behavior that helps individuals to develop social skills. Early-life stress has been shown to alter play fighting in rats and hamsters as well as to increase aggressive behaviors at adulthood. However, it is not known whether individual differences in stress-induced play fighting are related to differential developmental trajectories towards...

Absent sleep EEG spindle activity in GluA1 (Gria1) knockout mice: relevance to neuropsychiatric disorders

Sleep EEG spindles have been implicated in attention, sensory processing, synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. In humans, deficits in sleep spindles have been reported in a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Genome-wide association studies have suggested a link between schizophrenia and genes associated with synaptic plasticity...

PSD95 and nNOS interaction as a novel molecular target to modulate conditioned fear: relevance to PTSD

Stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs) and the resulting increase of nitric oxide (NO) production are critical for fear memory formation. Following NMDAR activation, efficient production of NO requires linking the 95 kDa postsynaptic density protein (PSD95), a scaffolding protein to neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). A variety of previously studied NMDAR...

Riluzole reduces amyloid beta pathology, improves memory, and restores gene expression changes in a transgenic mouse model of early-onset Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) represents a major healthcare burden with no effective treatment. The glutamate modulator, riluzole, was shown to reverse many AD-related gene expression changes and improve cognition in aged rats. However, riluzole’s effect on amyloid beta (Aβ) pathology, a major histopathological hallmark of AD, remains unclear. 5XFAD transgenic mice, which harbor...

Brain-computer-interface-based intervention re-normalizes brain functional network topology in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

A brain-computer-interface (BCI)-based attention training game system has shown promise for treating attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children with inattentive symptoms. However, little is known about brain network organizational changes underlying behavior improvement following BCI-based training. To cover this gap, we aimed to examine the topological alterations...

Investigating the genetic architecture of general and specific psychopathology in adolescence

Whilst associations between polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia and various phenotypic outcomes have been reported, an understanding of developmental pathways can only be gained by modelling comorbidity across psychopathology. We examine how genetic risk for schizophrenia relates to adolescent psychosis-related and internalizing psychopathology using a latent modelling...

Genetic association and meta-analysis of a schizophrenia GWAS variant rs10489202 in East Asian populations

Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest that rs10489202 in the intron of MPC2 (mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 2) is a risk locus for schizophrenia in Han Chinese populations. To validate this discovery, we conducted a replication analysis in an independent case-control sample of Han Chinese ancestry (437 cases and 2031 controls), followed by a meta-analytic...

Relationship between white matter integrity and serum inflammatory cytokine levels in drug-naive patients with major depressive disorder: diffusion tensor imaging study using tract-based spatial statistics

Recently, accumulated evidence has indicated a role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between white matter integrity and serum cytokine levels during the first depressive episode in drug-naive MDD patients, using a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. A total of 35 drug-naive MDD patients with...

Medium- and high-intensity rTMS reduces psychomotor agitation with distinct neurobiologic mechanisms

Definitive data are lacking on the mechanism of action and biomarkers of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for the treatment of depression. Low-intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS) has demonstrated utility in preclinical models of rTMS treatments but the effects of LI-rTMS in murine models of depression are unknown. We examined the behavioral and neurobiologic changes in...

Downregulation of the neuronal opioid gene expression concomitantly with neuronal decline in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of human alcoholics

Molecular changes in cortical areas of addicted brain may underlie cognitive impairment and loss of control over intake of addictive substances and alcohol. Prodynorphin (PDYN) gives rise to dynorphin (DYNs) opioid peptides which target kappa-opioid receptor (KOR). DYNs mediate alcohol-induced impairment of learning and memory, while KOR antagonists block excessive, compulsive...

Epigenetic regulation of the oxytocin receptor is associated with neural response during selective social attention

Aberrant attentional biases to social stimuli have been implicated in a number of disorders including autism and social anxiety disorder. Oxytocin, a naturally-occurring mammalian hormone and neuromodulator involved in regulating social behavior, has been proposed to impact basic biological systems that facilitate the detection of and orientation to social information. Here, we...

mGluR5 mediates post-radiotherapy fatigue development in cancer patients

Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a common burden in cancer patients and little is known about its underlying mechanism. The primary aim of this study was to identify gene signatures predictive of post-radiotherapy fatigue in prostate cancer patients. We employed Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to identify predictive genes using whole genome microarray data from 36 men...

Glutamate and GABA in autism spectrum disorder—a translational magnetic resonance spectroscopy study in man and rodent models

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental syndrome with a high human and economic burden. The pathophysiology of ASD is largely unclear, thus hampering development of pharmacological treatments for the core symptoms of the disorder. Abnormalities in glutamate and GABA signaling have been hypothesized to underlie ASD symptoms, and may form a therapeutic...

GWAS on family history of Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a public health priority for the 21st century. Risk reduction currently revolves around lifestyle changes with much research trying to elucidate the biological underpinnings. We show that self-report of parental history of Alzheimer’s dementia for case ascertainment in a genome-wide association study of 314,278 participants from UK Biobank (27,696...

Uncovering the hidden impacts of inequality on mental health: a global study

Women are nearly twice as likely as men to suffer from mental illness. This gender disparity in depressive disorders may relate to social inequalities and living standards across nations. Currently, these disparities were not reflected at the level of health policies. This study utilized global data for depressive disorders and socioeconomic data from the United Nations’ World...

Transcriptome analysis in whole blood reveals increased microbial diversity in schizophrenia

The role of the human microbiome in health and disease is increasingly appreciated. We studied the composition of microbial communities present in blood across 192 individuals, including healthy controls and patients with three disorders affecting the brain: schizophrenia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and bipolar disorder. By using high-quality unmapped RNA sequencing reads as...

Therapeutic endocannabinoid augmentation for mood and anxiety disorders: comparative profiling of FAAH, MAGL and dual inhibitors

Recent studies have demonstrated anxiolytic potential of pharmacological endocannabinoid (eCB) augmentation approaches in a variety of preclinical models. Pharmacological inhibition of endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes, such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), elicit promising anxiolytic effects in rodent models with limited adverse behavioral...

Toward personalised diffusion MRI in psychiatry: improved delineation of fibre bundles with the highest-ever angular resolution in vivo tractography

Diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography is a uniquely powerful tool capable of demonstrating structural brain network abnormalities across a range of psychiatric disorders; however, it is not currently clinically useful. This is because limitations on sensitivity effectively restrict its application to scientific studies of cohorts, rather than individual patients. Recent improvements...

Bipolar disorder in youth is associated with increased levels of vitamin D-binding protein

Genetic, dietary, and inflammatory factors contribute to the etiology of major mood disorders (MMD), thus impeding the identification of specific biomarkers to assist in diagnosis and treatment. We tested association of vitamin D and inflammatory markers in 36 adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) forms of MMD and without MMD (non-mood control...

Stimulated left DLPFC-nucleus accumbens functional connectivity predicts the anti-depression and anti-anxiety effects of rTMS for depression

Not all depression patients effectively respond to repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We tested whether the intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) strength between the stimulated left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left nucleus accumbens (NAcc) might predict effects of rTMS. Twenty-two medication-naïve depression patients received rTMS on left DLPFC...