American Journal of Epidemiology

http://aje.oxfordjournals.org

List of Papers (Total 6,156)

Is More Area-Level Crime Associated With More Sitting and Less Physical Activity? Longitudinal Evidence From 37,162 Australians

Does a rise in crime result in increased sitting time and a reduction in physical activity? We used unobserved (“fixed”)-effects models to examine associations between change in objectively measured crime (nondomestic violence, malicious damage, breaking and entering, and stealing, theft, and robbery) in Australia and measures of sitting time, walking, and moderate-to-vigorous ...

Maternal Influenza Immunization and Adverse Birth Outcomes: Using Data and Practice to Inform Theory and Research Design

Maternal influenza immunization can reduce influenza-attributable morbidity and mortality among pregnant women and infants who are too young to be vaccinated. Data from empirical studies also support the hypothesis that immunization can protect the fetus against adverse outcomes if the mother is exposed to influenza. In their theoretical analysis in the Journal, Hutcheon et al. (Am ...

Invited Commentary: Smokeless Tobacco—An Important Contributor to Cancer, but More Work Is Needed

In this issue of the Journal, Wyss et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2016;184(10):703–716) describe the association between use of smokeless tobacco and head and neck cancer in 11 US case-control studies. Despite use by an estimated 300 million people worldwide and prior evidence for a causal association with cancer, these products remain understudied. Data are particularly needed for ...

Smokeless Tobacco Use and the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: Pooled Analysis of US Studies in the INHANCE Consortium

Previous studies on smokeless tobacco use and head and neck cancer (HNC) have found inconsistent and often imprecise estimates, with limited control for cigarette smoking. Using pooled data from 11 US case-control studies (1981–2006) of oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers (6,772 cases and 8,375 controls) in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) ...

The Association Between Rate and Severity of Exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: An Application of a Joint Frailty-Logistic Model

Exacerbations are a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Evidence suggests the presence of substantial between-individual variability (heterogeneity) in exacerbation rates. The question of whether individuals vary in their tendency towards experiencing severe (versus mild) exacerbations, or whether there is an association between exacerbation rate and severity, ...

Estimation of Inorganic Arsenic Exposure in Populations With Frequent Seafood Intake: Evidence From MESA and NHANES

The sum of urinary inorganic arsenic (iAs) and methylated arsenic (monomethylarsonate and dimethylarsinate (DMA)) species is the main biomarker of iAs exposure. Assessing iAs exposure, however, is difficult in populations with moderate-to-high seafood intakes. In the present study, we used subsamples from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000–2002) (n = 310) and the ...

Month of Conception and Learning Disabilities: A Record-Linkage Study of 801,592 Children

Learning disabilities have profound, long-lasting health sequelae. Affected children born over the course of 1 year in the United States of America generated an estimated lifetime cost of $51.2 billion. Results from some studies have suggested that autistic spectrum disorder may vary by season of birth, but there have been few studies in which investigators examined whether this is ...

Invited Commentary: Harnessing Housing Natural Experiments Is Important, but Beware Differential Misclassification of Difference in Difference

In this issue of the Journal, Reeves et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2016;184(6):421–429) present the findings of a natural experiment analyzing the association between reduced housing affordability and mental ill health. Their difference-in-difference analysis of cross-sectional, quarterly population health surveys administered before and after implementation of a policy to reduce Housing ...

Reductions in the United Kingdom's Government Housing Benefit and Symptoms of Depression in Low-Income Households

Housing security is an important determinant of mental ill health. We used a quasinatural experiment to evaluate this association, comparing the prevalence of mental ill health in the United Kingdom before and after the government's April 2011 reduction in financial support for low-income persons who rent private-sector housing (mean reduction of approximately £1,220 ($2,315) per ...

Theoretical Basis of the Test-Negative Study Design for Assessment of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness

Influenza viruses undergo frequent antigenic changes. As a result, the viruses circulating change within and between seasons, and the composition of the influenza vaccine is updated annually. Thus, estimation of the vaccine's effectiveness is not constant across seasons. In order to provide annual estimates of the influenza vaccine's effectiveness, health departments have ...

Use of the “Exposome” in the Practice of Epidemiology: A Primer on -Omic Technologies

The exposome has been defined as the totality of exposures individuals experience over the course of their lives and how those exposures affect health. Three domains of the exposome have been identified: internal, specific external, and general external. Internal factors are those that are unique to the individual, and specific external factors include occupational exposures and ...

Detectable Risks in Studies of the Fetal Benefits of Maternal Influenza Vaccination

Maternal influenza vaccination prevents influenza illness in both mothers and newborns. Results from some recent studies have suggested that influenza vaccination might also prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth. However, it is challenging to conduct epidemiologic studies to evaluate the benefits to the fetus of maternal influenza vaccination because the causal ...

Uber and Metropolitan Traffic Fatalities in the United States

Uber and similar rideshare services are rapidly dispersing in cities across the United States and beyond. Given the convenience and low cost, Uber has been characterized as a potential countermeasure for reducing the estimated 121 million episodes of drunk driving and the 10,000 resulting traffic fatalities that occur annually in the United States. We exploited differences in the ...

Estimating the Number of Measles-Susceptible Children and Adolescents in the United States Using Data From the National Immunization Survey–Teen (NIS-Teen)

Despite high measles vaccination rates in the United States, imported measles cases have led to outbreaks in the United States. These outbreaks have not led to sustained measles transmission; however, with each birth cohort of children not fully vaccinated against measles, measles-susceptible individuals accumulate in the population. The total number of measles-susceptible children ...

High Maternal Body Mass Index in Early Pregnancy and Risks of Stillbirth and Infant Mortality—A Population-Based Sibling Study in Sweden

In a population-based case-control study, we investigated whether familial confounding influenced the associations between maternal overweight/obesity and risks of stillbirth and infant mortality by including both population and sister controls. Using nationwide data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register (1992–2011), we included all primiparous women with singleton births who ...

Reevaluating Cumulative HIV-1 Viral Load as a Prognostic Predictor: Predicting Opportunistic Infection Incidence and Mortality in a Ugandan Cohort

Recent studies have evaluated cumulative human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load (cVL) for predicting disease outcomes, with discrepant results. We reviewed the disparate methodological approaches taken and evaluated the prognostic utility of cVL in a resource-limited setting. Using data on the Infectious Diseases Institute (Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda) ...

Association of Genetic Risk for Schizophrenia With Nonparticipation Over Time in a Population-Based Cohort Study

Progress has recently been made in understanding the genetic basis of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Longitudinal studies are complicated by participant dropout, which could be related to the presence of psychiatric problems and associated genetic risk. We tested whether common genetic variants implicated in schizophrenia were associated with study nonparticipation ...

Time-Dependent Risk of Cancer After a Diabetes Diagnosis in a Cohort of 2.3 Million Adults

Using a time-dependent approach, we investigated all-site and site-specific cancer incidence in a large population stratified by diabetes status. The study analyzed a closed cohort comprised of Israelis aged 21–89 years, enrolled in a health fund, and followed from 2002 to 2012. Adjusting for age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, we calculated hazard ratios for cancer incidence ...

Context-Specific Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior With Cognition in Children

In the present study, we investigated how overall and specific domains of physical activity and sedentary behavior at the age of 7 years were associated with cognition at the age of 11 years in 8,462 children from the Millennium Cohort Study. Data were collected from 2001 to 2013. Participation in domains of physical activity and sedentary behavior at 7 years of age were reported. ...

Changes in Susceptibility to Heat During the Summer: A Multicountry Analysis

Few studies have examined the variation in mortality risk associated with heat during the summer. Here, we apply flexible statistical models to investigate the issue by using a large multicountry data set. We collected daily time-series data of temperature and mortality from 305 locations in 9 countries, in the period 1985–2012. We first estimated the heat-mortality relationship in ...

Neighborhood Environments and Incident Hypertension in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

We examined relationships between neighborhood physical and social environments and incidence of hypertension in a cohort of 3,382 adults at 6 sites in the United States over 10 years of follow-up (2000–2011), using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. The sample was aged 45–84 years (mean = 59 years) and free of clinical cardiovascular disease and hypertension at ...

Can Community Social Cohesion Prevent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Aftermath of a Disaster? A Natural Experiment From the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

In the aftermath of a disaster, the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is high. We sought to examine whether the predisaster level of community social cohesion was associated with a lower risk of PTSD after the earthquake and tsunami in Tohoku, Japan, on March 11, 2011. The baseline for our natural experiment was established in a survey of older community-dwelling adults ...