Current Hypertension Reports

http://link.springer.com/journal/11906

List of Papers (Total 66)

The Global Epidemic of the Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome, variously known also as syndrome X, insulin resistance, etc., is defined by WHO as a pathologic condition characterized by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Though there is some variation in the definition by other health care organization, the differences are minor. With the successful conquest of communicable infectious...

11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases and Hypertension in the Metabolic Syndrome

The metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of risk factors—visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and salt-sensitive hypertension—that increases mortality related to cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of these concurrent comorbidities is ~ 25–30% worldwide, and metabolic syndrome therefore...

Elucidating the Pathogenesis of Pre-eclampsia Using In Vitro Models of Spiral Uterine Artery Remodelling

Purpose of Review The aim of the study is to perform a critical assessment of in vitro models of pre-eclampsia using complementary human and cell line-based studies. Molecular mechanisms involved in spiral uterine artery (SUA) remodelling and trophoblast functionality will also be discussed. Recent Findings A number of proteins and microRNAs have been implicated as key in SUA...

The Unique Blood Pressures and Pulsatility of LVAD Patients: Current Challenges and Future Opportunities

An increasing number of end-stage heart failure patients are now implanted with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs). Although this therapeutic approach is associated with improved clinical outcomes, continuous flow physiology reduces arterial pulse pressure and pulsatility to an extent that is unique to this population. Recent data suggest that high blood...

Relevance of Haemodynamics in Treating Pre-eclampsia

Blood pressure is a way of describing the end result of changes in cardiac output, intravascular volume and peripheral resistance. It has certain advantages in that it is a reproducible and easily measured parameter, but in itself, it offers only a limited understanding of the underlying haemodynamics. In pregnancy, profound haemodynamic changes occur and in hypertensive diseases...

Pre-eclampsia: the Potential of GSNO Reductase Inhibitors

Purpose of ReviewPre-eclampsia remains a leading worldwide cause of maternal death and of perinatal morbidity. There remains no definitive treatment except delivery of the fetus.Recent FindingsRecent insights into the cardiovascular changes that are evident prior to, during, and persist after pre-eclampsia have improved understanding of the underlying pathophysiology—disruption...

How to Screen for Non-Adherence to Antihypertensive Therapy

The quality of assessment of non-adherence to treatment in hypertensive is poor. Within this review, we discuss the different methods used to assess adherence to blood-pressure-lowering medications in hypertension patients. Subjective reports such as physicians’ perceptions are inaccurate, and questionnaires completed by patients tend to overreport adherence and show a low...

From ARB to ARNI in Cardiovascular Control

Coexistence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease synergistically aggravates the risk of cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality. These high-risk, multi-morbid patient populations benefit less from currently available anti-hypertensive treatment. Simultaneous angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade and neprilysin inhibition (‘ARNI’) with valsartan...

Effects of Aspirin on Endothelial Function and Hypertension

Purpose of review Endothelial dysfunction is intimately related to the development of various cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, and is often used as a target for pharmacological treatment. The scope of this review is to assess effects of aspirin on endothelial function and their clinical implication in arterial hypertension. Recent findings Emerging data indicate...

Renal Afferents

Purpose of Review The etiology of hypertension, a critical public health issue affecting one in three US adults, involves the integration of the actions of multiple organ systems, including the renal sympathetic nerves. The renal sympathetic nerves, which are comprised of both afferent (sensory input) and efferent (sympathetic outflow) arms, have emerged as a major potential...

Preeclampsia and Extracellular Vesicles

Preeclampsia is a hypertensive pregnancy disorder characterized by development of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation that remains a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. While preeclampsia is believed to result from complex interactions between maternal and placental factors, the proximate pathophysiology of this syndrome remains...

Relationship Between Antihypertensive Medications and Cognitive Impairment: Part I. Review of Human Studies and Clinical Trials

Purpose of review There is an established association between hypertension and increased risk of poor cognitive performance and dementia including Alzheimer’s disease; however, associations between antihypertensive medications (AHMs) and dementia risk are less consistent. An increased interest in AHM has resulted in expanding publications; however, none of the recent reviews are...

Relationship Between Antihypertensive Medications and Cognitive Impairment: Part II. Review of Physiology and Animal Studies

Purpose of Review There is an established association between hypertension and increased risk of poor cognitive performance and dementia including Alzheimer’s disease; however, associations between antihypertensive medications (AHM) and dementia risk are less clear. An increased interest in AHM has resulted in expanding publications; however, none of the recent reviews provide...

Device-based Therapy for Hypertension

Hypertension continues to be a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality, fuelled by an abundance of patients with uncontrolled blood pressure despite the multitude of pharmacological options available. This may occur as a consequence of true resistant hypertension, through an inability to tolerate current pharmacological therapies, or non-adherence to antihypertensive...

Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases: Are Fructose-Containing Sugars More Involved Than Other Dietary Calories?

There is increasing concern that sugar consumption may be linked to the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. There is indeed strong evidence that consumption of energy-dense sugary beverages and foods is associated with increased energy intake and body weight gain over time. It is further proposed that the fructose component of sugars may exert specific...

Multifactorial Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Hypertension: the Cardiovascular Polypill

Hypertension is a major, if not the most important, contributor to the disease burden and premature death globally which is largely related to cardiovascular disease. In both the primary and the secondary preventions of cardiovascular disease, blood pressure (BP) targets are often not achieved which is similar to achievement of cholesterol goals. Combining aspirin, cholesterol...

Role of Phosphodiesterase 5 and Cyclic GMP in Hypertension

Cyclic GMP (cGMP) is a ubiquitous intracellular second messenger that mediates a wide spectrum of physiologic processes in multiple cell types within the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Synthesis of cGMP occurs either by NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclases in response to nitric oxide or by membrane-bound guanylyl cyclases in response to natriuretic peptides and has been shown to...

New Evidence Supporting the Use of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Blockers in Drug-Resistant Hypertension

Treatment resistant hypertension (TRH), defined as a blood pressure above goal despite treatment with optimally tolerated doses of 3 antihypertensive agents of different classes, ideally including a diuretic, remains a significant problem and its management an area of uncertainty for physicians. One hypothesis is that resistant hypertension is due to abnormal sodium retention...

Dietary Nitrate Lowers Blood Pressure: Epidemiological, Pre-clinical Experimental and Clinical Trial Evidence

Nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator critical in maintaining vascular homeostasis, can reduce blood pressure in vivo. Loss of constitutive NO generation, for example as a result of endothelial dysfunction, occurs in many pathological conditions, including hypertension, and contributes to disease pathology. Attempts to therapeutically deliver NO via organic nitrates (e.g...