Cell Communication and Signaling

http://www.biosignaling.com/

List of Papers (Total 541)

Bacterial serine protease HtrA as a promising new target for antimicrobial therapy?

Recent studies have demonstrated that the bacterial chaperone and serine protease high temperature requirement A (HtrA) is closely associated with the establishment and progression of several infectious diseases. HtrA activity enhances bacterial survival under stress conditions, but also has direct effects on functions of the cell adhesion protein E-cadherin and extracellular ...

HECTD1 controls the protein level of IQGAP1 to regulate the dynamics of adhesive structures

Background Cell migration including collective cell movement and individual cell migration are crucial factors in embryogenesis. During the spreading/migration of cells, several types of adhesive structures physically interacting with the extracellular matrix (ECM) or with another cell have been described and the formation and maturation of adhesion structures are coordinated, ...

T cell exhaustion: from pathophysiological basics to tumor immunotherapy

The immune system is capable of distinguishing between danger- and non-danger signals, thus inducing either an appropriate immune response against pathogens and cancer or inducing self-tolerance to avoid autoimmunity and immunopathology. One of the mechanisms that have evolved to prevent destruction by the immune system, is to functionally silence effector T cells, termed T cell ...

Aldose reductase mediates endothelial cell dysfunction induced by high uric acid concentrations

Background Uric acid (UA) is an antioxidant found in human serum. However, high UA levels may also have pro-oxidant functions. According to previous research, aldose reductase (AR) plays a vital role in the oxidative stress-related complications of diabetes. We sought to determine the mechanism by which UA becomes deleterious at high concentrations as well as the effect of AR in ...

Integrin-FAK signaling rapidly and potently promotes mitochondrial function through STAT3

Background STAT3 is increasingly becoming known for its non-transcriptional regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetic function upon activation of its S727 residue (S727-STAT3). Lengthy mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to cell death. We tested whether an integrin-FAK-STAT3 signaling pathway we recently discovered regulates mitochondrial function and cell survival, and treatments ...

Attenuation of chemokine receptor function and surface expression as an immunomodulatory strategy employed by human cytomegalovirus is linked to vGPCR US28

Background Some herpesviruses like human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encode viral G protein-coupled receptors that cause reprogramming of cell signaling to facilitate dissemination of the virus, prevent immune surveillance and establish life-long latency. Human GPCRs are known to function in complex signaling networks involving direct physical interactions as well as indirect crosstalk ...

HtrA-mediated E-cadherin cleavage is limited to DegP and DegQ homologs expressed by gram-negative pathogens

Background The serine proteases HtrA/DegP secreted by the human gastrointestinal pathogens Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) cleave the mammalian cell adhesion protein E-cadherin to open intercellular adhesions. A wide range of bacteria also expresses the HtrA/DegP homologs DegQ and/or DegS, which significantly differ in structure and function. ...

The role of IL-10 in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an intracellular pathogen and is the causative agent of Johne’s disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Johne’s disease is characterized by chronic granulomatous enteritis leading to substantial economic losses to the livestock sector across the world. MAP persistently survives in phagocytic cells, most commonly in macrophages by ...

High expression of EPB41L5, an integral component of the Arf6-driven mesenchymal program, correlates with poor prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue

Background Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (tongue SCC) is a major subtype of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), which is an intractable cancer under current therapeutics. ARF6 and its effector AMAP1 are often overexpressed in different types of cancers, such as breast cancer and renal cancer, and in these cancers, AMAP1 binds to EPB41L5 to promote invasion, ...

E-cadherin roles in animal biology: A perspective on thyroid hormone-influence

The establishment, remodeling and maintenance of tissular architecture during animal development, and even across juvenile to adult life, are deeply regulated by a delicate interplay of extracellular signals, cell membrane receptors and intracellular signal messengers. It is well known that cell adhesion molecules (cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix) play a critical role in ...

“Inverse signaling” of the transmembrane chemokine CXCL16 contributes to proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects in cultured human meningioma cells

Background Chemokines and their receptors play a decisive role in tumor progression and metastasis. We recently found a new signaling mechanism in malignant glioma cells mediated by transmembrane chemokines that we termed “inverse signaling”. According to this hypothesis, soluble (s)-CXCL16 binds to the surface-expressed transmembrane (tm) -CXCL16, and induces signaling and ...

Lack of interaction between ErbB2 and insulin receptor substrate signaling in breast cancer

Background ErbB2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 2 (ErbB2, HER2/Neu) is amplified in breast cancer and associated with poor prognosis. Growing evidence suggests interplay between ErbB2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling. For example, ErbB2 inhibitors can block IGF-induced signaling while, conversely, IGF1R inhibitors can inhibit ErbB2 action. ErbB receptors can bind and ...

Hunting for the ultimate liquid cancer biopsy - let the TEP dance begin

Non-protein coding RNAs in different flavors (miRNAs, piRNAs, snoRNAs, lncRNAs, SHOT-RNAs), exosomes, large oncosomes, exoDNA and now tumor-educated platelets (TEPs) have emerged as crucial signal transmitting, transporting and regulating devices of cells in the last two decades. They are also establishing themselves increasingly in the realm of tumor research. We are currently ...

Neurogenin 3 is regulated by neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 (TRKB) signaling in the adult human exocrine pancreas

Background Reports of exocrine-to-endocrine reprogramming through expression or stabilization of the transcription factor neurogenin 3 (NGN3) have generated renewed interest in harnessing pancreatic plasticity for therapeutic applications. NGN3 is expressed by a population of endocrine progenitor cells that give rise exclusively to hormone-secreting cells within pancreatic islets ...

Can erythrocytes release biologically active NO?

Under physiological conditions, endothelial cells and the endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) are the main source of NO in the cardiovascular system. However, several other cell types have also been implicated in the NO-dependent regulation of cell function, including erythrocytes. NO derived from red blood cells has been proposed to regulate erythrocyte membrane ...

Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein (VASP)-dependent and -independent pathways regulate thrombin-induced activation of Rap1b in platelets

Background Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein (VASP) is involved in the inhibition of agonist-induced platelet aggregation by cyclic nucleotides and the adhesion of platelets to the vascular wall. α IIb β 3 is the main integrin responsible for platelet activation and Rap1b plays a key role in integrin signalling. We investigated whether VASP is involved in the regulation of ...

Interaction of MSC with tumor cells

Tumor development and tumor progression is not only determined by the corresponding tumor cells but also by the tumor microenvironment. This includes an orchestrated network of interacting cell types (e.g. immune cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and mesenchymal stroma/stem cells (MSC)) via the extracellular matrix and soluble factors such as cytokines, chemokines, growth ...

Normalization of TAM post-receptor signaling reveals a cell invasive signature for Axl tyrosine kinase

Background Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk (TAMs) are a family of three conserved receptor tyrosine kinases that have pleiotropic roles in innate immunity and homeostasis and when overexpressed in cancer cells can drive tumorigenesis. Methods In the present study, we engineered EGFR/TAM chimeric receptors (EGFR/Tyro3, EGFR/Axl, and EGF/Mertk) with the goals to interrogate post-receptor ...

Epigenetic regulation of transcription factor promoter regions by low-dose genistein through mitogen-activated protein kinase and mitogen-and-stress activated kinase 1 nongenomic signaling

Background The phytoestrogen, genistein at low doses nongenomically activates mitogen-activated protein kinase p44/42 (MAPK p44/42 ) via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) leading to proliferation of human uterine leiomyoma cells. In this study, we evaluated if MAPK p44/42 could activate downstream effectors such as mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1), which could then ...

Gtpbp2 is a positive regulator of Wnt signaling and maintains low levels of the Wnt negative regulator Axin

Background Canonical Wnt signals, transduced by stabilized β-catenin, play similar roles across animals in maintaining stem cell pluripotency, regulating cell differentiation, and instructing normal embryonic development. Dysregulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling causes diseases and birth defects, and a variety of regulatory processes control this pathway to ensure its proper function ...

Role of PKCtheta in macrophage-mediated immune response to Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice

Background The serine/threonine protein kinase C (PKC) theta has been firmly implicated in T cell-mediated immunity. Because its role in macrophages has remained undefined, we employed PKCtheta-deficient (PKCtheta −/− ) mice in order to investigate if PKCtheta plays a role in macrophage-mediated immune responses during bacterial infections. Results Our results demonstrate that ...

Transferring intercellular signals and traits between cancer cells: extracellular vesicles as “homing pigeons”

Extracellular vesicles are cell-derived vesicles, which can transport various cargos out of cells. From their cell of origin, the content molecules (proteins, non-coding RNAs including miRNAs, DNA and others) can be delivered to neighboring or distant cells and as such extracellular vesicles can be regarded as vehicles of intercellular communication or “homing pigeons”. ...

Differential Lyn-dependence of the SHIP1-deficient mast cell phenotype

Background Antigen (Ag)/IgE-mediated mast cell (MC) responses play detrimental roles in allergic diseases. MC activation via the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) is controlled by the Src family kinase Lyn. Lyn-deficient (-/-) bone marrow-derived MCs (BMMCs) have been shown by various laboratories to exert stronger activation of the PI3K pathway, degranulation, and production ...

The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to ...

The new (dis)order in RNA regulation

RNA-binding proteins play a key role in the regulation of all aspects of RNA metabolism, from the synthesis of RNA to its decay. Protein-RNA interactions have been thought to be mostly mediated by canonical RNA-binding domains that form stable secondary and tertiary structures. However, a number of pioneering studies over the past decades, together with recent proteome-wide data, ...