Cell Communication and Signaling

http://www.biosignaling.com/

List of Papers (Total 565)

Human hyaluronic acid synthase-1 promotes malignant transformation via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, micronucleation and centrosome abnormalities

Human hyaluronic acid (HA) molecules are synthesized by three membrane spanning Hyaluronic Acid Synthases (HAS1, HAS2 and HAS3). Of the three, HAS1 is found to be localized more into the cytoplasmic space where it synthesizes intracellular HA. HA is a ubiquitous glycosaminoglycan, mainly present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and on the cell surface, but are also detected...

A transwell assay that excludes exosomes for assessment of tunneling nanotube-mediated intercellular communication

Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are naturally-occurring filamentous actin-based membranous extensions that form across a wide spectrum of mammalian cell types to facilitate long-range intercellular communication. Valid assays are needed to accurately assess the downstream effects of TNT-mediated transfer of cellular signals in vitro. We recently reported a modified transwell assay...

CD146, a novel target of CD44-signaling, suppresses breast tumor cell invasion

We have previously validated three novel CD44-downstream positively regulated transcriptional targets, including Cortactin, Survivin and TGF-β2, and further characterized the players underlying their separate signaling pathways. In the present study, we identified CD146 as a potential novel target, negatively regulated by CD44. While the exact function of CD146 in breast cancer...

Metabolic shift in density-dependent stem cell differentiation

Vascular progenitor cells (VPCs) derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a valuable source for cell- and tissue-based therapeutic strategies. During the optimization of endothelial cell (EC) inductions from mouse ESCs using our staged and chemically-defined induction methods, we found that cell seeding density but not VEGF treatment between 10 ng/mL and 40 ng/mL was a...

Human umbilical cord Wharton jelly cells promote extra-pancreatic insulin formation and repair of renal damage in STZ-induced diabetic mice

We evaluated the therapeutic effect and fate of high doses of human umbilical cord Wharton jelly cells (hUCWJCs) after IP administration to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) was induced in Kunming mice via IP injection of STZ. hUCWJCs were labeled with 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI). Diabetic animals with...

A novel protein derived from lamprey supraneural body tissue with efficient cytocidal actions against tumor cells

In previous research, we found that cell secretion from the adult lamprey supraneural body tissues possesses cytocidal activity against tumor cells, but the protein with cytocidal activity was unidentified. A novel lamprey immune protein (LIP) as defense molecule was first purified and identified in jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes) using hydroxyapatite column and Q Sepharose...

NF-κB potentiates tumor growth by suppressing a novel target LPTS

Chronic inflammation is causally linked to the carcinogenesis and progression of most solid tumors. LPTS is a well-identified tumor suppressor by inhibiting telomerase activity and cancer cell growth. However, whether and how LPTS is regulated by inflammation signaling is still incompletely elucidated. Real-time PCR and western blotting were used to determine the expression of...

DNA damage response and cancer therapeutics through the lens of the Fanconi Anemia DNA repair pathway

Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a rare, inherited genomic instability disorder, caused by mutations in genes involved in the repair of interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICLs). The FA signaling network contains a unique nuclear protein complex that mediates the monoubiquitylation of the FANCD2 and FANCI heterodimer, and coordinates activities of the downstream DNA repair pathway including...

CLCA1 suppresses colorectal cancer aggressiveness via inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway

Chloride channel accessory 1 (CLCA1) belongs to the calcium-sensitive chloride conductance protein family, which is mainly expressed in the colon, small intestine and appendix. This study was conducted to investigate the functions and mechanisms of CLCA1 in colorectal cancer (CRC). The CLCA1 protein expression level in CRC patients was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent...

Crosstalk between glial and glioblastoma cells triggers the “go-or-grow” phenotype of tumor cells

Glioblastoma (GBM), the most malignant primary brain tumor, leads to poor and unpredictable clinical outcomes. Recent studies showed the tumor microenvironment has a critical role in regulating tumor growth by establishing a complex network of interactions with tumor cells. In this context, we investigated how GBM cells modulate resident glial cells, particularly their paracrine...

ARF1 recruits RAC1 to leading edge in neutrophil chemotaxis

The small GTPase ARF1 mediates membrane trafficking mostly from the Golgi, and is essential for the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated chemotaxis of neutrophils. In this process, ARF1 is activated by the guanine nucleotide exchanger GBF1, and is inactivated by the GTPase-activating protein GIT2. Neutrophils generate the Gβγ-PAK1-αPIX-GIT2 linear complex during GPCR...

The emerging roles of phosphatases in Hedgehog pathway

Hedgehog signaling is evolutionarily conserved and plays a pivotal role in cell fate determination, embryonic development, and tissue renewal. As aberrant Hedgehog signaling is tightly associated with a broad range of human diseases, its activities must be precisely controlled. It has been known that several core components of Hedgehog pathway undergo reversible phosphorylations...

CRAMP deficiency leads to a pro-inflammatory phenotype and impaired phagocytosis after exposure to bacterial meningitis pathogens

Antimicrobial peptides are important components of the host defence with a broad range of functions including direct antimicrobial activity and modulation of inflammation. Lack of cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) was associated with higher mortality and bacterial burden and impaired neutrophil granulocyte infiltration in a model of pneumococcal meningitis. The...

Deficiency of PI3-Kinase catalytic isoforms p110γ and p110δ in mice enhances the IL-17/G-CSF axis and induces neutrophilia

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) and PI3Kδ are second messenger-generating enzymes with key roles in proliferation, differentiation, survival, and function of leukocytes. Deficiency of the catalytic subunits p110γ and p110δ of PI3Kγ and PI3Kδ in p110γ/δ−/− mice leads to defective B- and T-cell homeostasis. Here we examined the role of p110γ and p110δ in the homeostasis of...

Inhibition of TRPM7 suppresses cell proliferation of colon adenocarcinoma in vitro and induces hypomagnesemia in vivo without affecting azoxymethane-induced early colon cancer in mice

Magnesium (Mg2+) is an essential cation implicated in carcinogenesis, solid tumor progression and metastatic potential. The Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin Member 7 (TRPM7) is a divalent ion channel involved in cellular and systemic Mg2+ homeostasis. Abnormal expression of TRPM7 is found in numerous cancers, including colon, implicating TRPM7 in this process. To establish...

Csk-homologous kinase (Chk) is an efficient inhibitor of Src-family kinases but a poor catalyst of phosphorylation of their C-terminal regulatory tyrosine

C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Csk-homologous kinase (Chk) are the major endogenous inhibitors of Src-family kinases (SFKs). They employ two mechanisms to inhibit SFKs. First, they phosphorylate the C-terminal tail tyrosine which stabilizes SFKs in a closed inactive conformation by engaging the SH2 domain in cis. Second, they employ a non-catalytic inhibitory mechanism involving...

Viral manipulation of the cellular sumoylation machinery

Viruses exploit various cellular processes for their own benefit, including counteracting anti-viral responses and regulating viral replication and propagation. In the past 20 years, protein sumoylation has emerged as an important post-translational modification that is manipulated by viruses to modulate anti-viral responses, viral replication, and viral pathogenesis. The process...

Glyceollins trigger anti-proliferative effects through estradiol-dependent and independent pathways in breast cancer cells

Estrogen receptors (ER) α and β are found in both women and men in many tissues, where they have different functions, including having roles in cell proliferation and differentiation of the reproductive tract. In addition to estradiol (E2), a natural hormone, numerous compounds are able to bind ERs and modulate their activities. Among these compounds, phytoestrogens such as...

The Id-protein family in developmental and cancer-associated pathways

Inhibitors of DNA binding and cell differentiation (Id) proteins are members of the large family of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors, but they lack any DNA-binding motif. During development, the Id proteins play a key role in the regulation of cell-cycle progression and cell differentiation by modulating different cell-cycle regulators both by direct and indirect...

Acute myeloid leukemia – strategies and challenges for targeting oncogenic Hedgehog/GLI signaling

Treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), an aggressive and heterogeneous hematological malignancy, remains a challenge. Despite advances in our understanding of the complex genetics and biology of AML pathophysiology, these findings have been translated to the clinic with only limited success, and poor outcomes persist for the majority of patients. Thus, novel treatment...

Reactivation of dormant anti-tumor immunity – a clinical perspective of therapeutic immune checkpoint modulation

In favor of their outgrowth, cancer cells must resist immune surveillance and edit the immune response. Cancer immunoediting is characterized by fundamental changes in the cellular composition and the inflammatory cytokine profiles in the microenvironment of the primary tumor and metastatic niches, with an ever increasing complexity of interactions between tumor cells and the...

Bacterial serine protease HtrA as a promising new target for antimicrobial therapy?

Recent studies have demonstrated that the bacterial chaperone and serine protease high temperature requirement A (HtrA) is closely associated with the establishment and progression of several infectious diseases. HtrA activity enhances bacterial survival under stress conditions, but also has direct effects on functions of the cell adhesion protein E-cadherin and extracellular...