Population Ecology

http://link.springer.com/journal/10144

List of Papers (Total 75)

Long-term population trends of Sooty Terns Onychoprion fuscatus: implications for conservation status

Seabirds have suffered dramatic declines in population over recent decades. The most abundant seabirds of tropical oceans are Sooty Terns Onychoprion fuscatus and they have an IUCN Red List category of ‘Least Concern’. Ascension Island has the largest colony of Sooty Terns in the Atlantic Ocean and censuses between 1990 and 2013 have shown that its population size is static. In ...

The influence of time since introduction on the population growth of introduced species and the consequences for management

Several processes likely act to change the demographic rates of introduced species over time, and this changing demography could influence the optimal management of invasive populations. Optimal management strategies should be derived based on the demography. However, we have a poor understanding of the degree to which the demography of introduced species changes following initial ...

Resource use by the dryad butterfly is scale-dependent

The factors shaping the ways in which animals use resources are a key element of conservation biology, but ecological studies on resource use typically neglect to consider how the study’s spatial scale may have affected the outcomes. We used the dryad butterfly, inhabiting xerothermic grassland and wet meadow, to test for differences in its resource use at two scales–habitat patch ...

Predation of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) on hibernating bats

Bat hibernacula with high numbers of bats can become high-risk areas, as they attract flying and non-flying predators. In order to protect hibernating bats effectively, more knowledge about mortality factors is needed. During the winters of 2003–2015, we found 214 dead bats in 12 hibernacula in The Netherlands province of Zuid-Holland. Most bat remains were found in December and ...

Too close for comfort: spatial patterns in acorn barnacle populations

Spatial patterns in aggregations form as a result of the interplay between costs and benefits experienced by individuals. Such self-organisation of aggregations can be explained using a zonal model in which a short-range zone of repulsion and longer-range zone of attraction surrounding individuals leads to emergent pattern properties. The signal of these processes can be detected ...

How to walk on statistical mandalas as a population ecologist

We population ecologists who are believed to be good at dealing with statistics often get confused about what kinds of statistical methods we should apply to our nuisance data. There are a couple of conflicting paradigms and many associated methods in statistics. Classical frequentists’ approaches that have dominated in science have been severely criticized by the newcomers: ...

Demystifying the Sundarban tiger: novel application of conventional population estimation methods in a unique ecosystem

Conserving large populations with unique adaptations is essential for minimizing extinction risks. Sundarban mangroves (>10,000 km2) are the only mangrove inhabited by tigers. Baseline information about this tiger population is lacking due to its man-eating reputation and logistic difficulties of sampling. Herein, we adapt photographic capture-mark-recapture (CMR) and distance ...

Apparent annual survival of staging ruffs during a period of population decline: insights from sex and site-use related differences

The ruff Philomachus pugnax, a lekking shorebird wintering in Africa and breeding across northern Eurasia, declined severely in its western range. Based on a capture-mark-resighting programme (2004–2011) in the westernmost staging area in Friesland (the Netherlands), we investigated changes in apparent annual survival in relation to age and sex to explore potential causes of ...

Drivers of local densities of endangered Lycaena helle butterflies in a fragmented landscape

Due to their specialised habitat requirements, butterflies are particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. Understanding the drivers of local abundances of species is essential for their effective conservation in fragmented landscapes. We investigated factors affecting population densities of an endangered European butterfly, the Violet Copper (Lycaena helle), ...

Habitat displacement effect between two competing owl species in fragmented forests

Many owl species use the same nesting and food resources, which causes strong interspecific competition and spatio-temporal niche separation. We made use of a recent colonisation of Ural Owls (Strix uralensis) in southern Poland to compare habitat preferences of Tawny Owls (Strix aluco) allopatry and sympatry with Ural Owls. We investigated spatial niche segregation of Ural Owl and ...

The extent and costs of reproductive interference among four species of true bug

Reproductive interference arises when individuals of one species engage in reproductive activities with individuals of another, leading to fitness costs in one or both species. Reproductive interference (RI) therefore has two components. First, there must be mis-directed mating interactions. Second, there must be costs associated with these mis-directed interactions. Here we ...

Multi-faceted approaches toward unravelling complex ecological networks

The main theme of this Special Feature is the complexity-stability relationship and diversity of interaction types. Five articles by leading authors are submitted. Studies on the relationship between complexity and stability have a long history of 40 years. Effect of multiple interaction types on structure and dynamics of an ecological network is a recent important subject to be ...

Variations in the population structure and ecology of Matteuccia struthiopteris

The aim of the study was to investigate variation in the structure of a population of Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Tod. in N–E Poland depending on its location in a river valley and light availability under tree canopies. Ordination statistical methods and structural equation modeling were used to identify ecological relationships in the population. The analysis showed that ...

Spatial distribution and settlement strategies in willow ptarmigan

In heterogeneous landscapes individuals select among several habitat patches. The fitness rewards of these choices are assumed to play an important role in the distribution of individuals across landscapes. Individuals can either use environmental cues to directly assess the quality of breeding sites, or rely on social cues to guide the settlement decision. We estimated the density ...

Variation in vital-rate sensitivity between populations of Texas horned lizards

Demographic studies of imperiled populations can aid managers in planning conservation actions. However, applicability of findings for a single population across a species’ range is sometimes questionable. We conducted long-term studies (8 and 9 years, respectively) of 2 populations of the lizard Phrynosoma cornutum separated by 1000 km within the historical distribution of the ...

An invasive gull displaces native waterbirds to breeding habitats more exposed to native predators

The effect of invasive opportunistic predators may include population changes in both native prey and native predators as well as alteration of predator–prey interactions. We analyzed the activity of native magpie Pica pica and changes in population, nest sites and nesting success probability of native waterbirds (namely: grebes, ducks, rails and native gulls) in response to the ...

Timing of arrival at breeding grounds determines spatial patterns of productivity within the population of white stork (Ciconia ciconia)

Early arrival at breeding grounds have important fitness consequences for migratory birds, both at individual and population level. The aim of this study was to investigate how the timing of arrival at the breeding territories affects the spatial patterns of reproductive success within a population of white storks (Ciconia ciconia). Data were gathered annually for ca. 200 pairs of ...

Experimental evidence that livestock grazing intensity affects cyclic vole population regulation processes

Grazing by domestic ungulates may limit the densities of small herbivorous mammals that act as key prey in ecosystems. Whether this also influences density dependence and the regulation of small herbivore populations, hence their propensity to exhibit multi-annual population cycles, is unknown. Here, we combine time series analysis with a large-scale grazing experiment on upland ...

Selection on dispersal in isolated butterfly metapopulations

In most metapopulation models dispersal is assumed to be a fixed species-specific trait, but in reality dispersal abilities are highly sensitive to various selective pressures. Strict isolation of a metapopulation, which precludes any influx of immigrants (and their genes) from outside and makes it impossible for emigrants to reach other localities with suitable habitat, thus ...