Behavior Genetics

http://link.springer.com/journal/10519

List of Papers (Total 166)

Tspyl2 Loss-of-Function Causes Neurodevelopmental Brain and Behavior Abnormalities in Mice

Testis specific protein, Y-encoded-like 2 (TSPYL2) regulates the expression of genes encoding glutamate receptors. Glutamate pathology is implicated in neurodevelopmental conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia. In line with this, a microduplication incorporating the TSPYL2 locus has been reported in people with ...

A New Approach to Handle Missing Covariate Data in Twin Research

The often-used ACE model which decomposes phenotypic variance into additive genetic (A), common-environmental (C) and unique-environmental (E) parts can be extended to include covariates. Collection of these variables however often leads to a large amount of missing data, for example when self-reports (e.g. questionnaires) are not fully completed. The usual approach to handle ...

Genes, Culture and Conservatism-A Psychometric-Genetic Approach

The Wilson−Patterson conservatism scale was psychometrically evaluated using homogeneity analysis and item response theory models. Results showed that this scale actually measures two different aspects in people: on the one hand people vary in their agreement with either conservative or liberal catch-phrases and on the other hand people vary in their use of the “?” response ...

What Cure Models Can Teach us About Genome-Wide Survival Analysis

The aim of logistic regression is to estimate genetic effects on disease risk, while survival analysis aims to determine effects on age of onset. In practice, genetic variants may affect both types of outcomes. A cure survival model analyzes logistic and survival effects simultaneously. The aim of this simulation study is to assess the performance of logistic regression and ...

Differences in Adolescent Physical Fitness: A Multivariate Approach and Meta-analysis

Physical fitness can be defined as a set of components that determine exercise ability and influence performance in sports. This study investigates the genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in explosive leg strength (vertical jump), handgrip strength, balance, and flexibility (sit-and-reach) in 227 healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs and 38 of ...

Reviving the Louisville Twin Study: An Introduction

Researchers who are interested in breathing new life into the long dormant Louisville Twin Study (LTS) presented several papers at the 2015 meeting of the behavior genetics association. This brief introduction provides a short history of the Kentucky LTS as well as synopses of expanded analyses from the presentations on genetic change and continuity in cognitive and behavioral ...

Evidence for Gender-Dependent Genotype by Environment Interaction in Adult Depression

Depression in adults is heritable with about 40 % of the phenotypic variance due to additive genetic effects and the remaining phenotypic variance due to unique (unshared) environmental effects. Common environmental effects shared by family members are rarely found in adults. One possible explanation for this finding is that there is an interaction between genes and the environment ...

Chorionicity and Heritability Estimates from Twin Studies: The Prenatal Environment of Twins and Their Resemblance Across a Large Number of Traits

There are three types of monozygotic (MZ) twins. MZ twins can either share one chorion and one amnion, each twin can have its own amnion, or MZ twins can—like dizygotic twins—each have their own chorion and amnion. Sharing the same chorion may create a more similar/dissimilar prenatal environment and bias heritability estimates, but most twin studies do not distinguish between ...

Meta-analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies for Extraversion: Findings from the Genetics of Personality Consortium

Extraversion is a relatively stable and heritable personality trait associated with numerous psychosocial, lifestyle and health outcomes. Despite its substantial heritability, no genetic variants have been detected in previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies, which may be due to relatively small sample sizes of those studies. Here, we report on a large meta-analysis of GWA ...

Testing Causal Effects of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring’s Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior

Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is associated with increased risk of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in offspring. Two explanations (not mutually exclusive) for this association are direct causal effects of maternal SDP and the effects of genetic and environmental factors common to parents and offspring which increase smoking as well as problem behaviors. Here, we ...

Heritability of Individual Psychotic Experiences Captured by Common Genetic Variants in a Community Sample of Adolescents

Occurrence of psychotic experiences is common amongst adolescents in the general population. Twin studies suggest that a third to a half of variance in adolescent psychotic experiences is explained by genetic influences. Here we test the extent to which common genetic variants account for some of the twin-based heritability. Psychotic experiences were assessed with the Specific ...

Estimation of Genetic Relationships Between Individuals Across Cohorts and Platforms: Application to Childhood Height

Combining genotype data across cohorts increases power to estimate the heritability due to common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), based on analyzing a Genetic Relationship Matrix (GRM). However, the combination of SNP data across multiple cohorts may lead to stratification, when for example, different genotyping platforms are used. In the current study, we address issues of ...

Heritability, SNP- and Gene-Based Analyses of Cannabis Use Initiation and Age at Onset

Prior searches for genetic variants (GVs) implicated in initiation of cannabis use have been limited to common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) typed in HapMap samples. Denser SNPs are now available with the completion of the 1000 Genomes and the Genome of the Netherlands projects. More densely distributed SNPs are expected to track the causal variants better. Therefore we ...

Childhood ODD and ADHD Behavior: The Effect of Classroom Sharing, Gender, Teacher Gender and Their Interactions

One criterion for a diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is that symptoms are present in at least two settings, and often teacher ratings are taken into account. The short Conners’ Teacher Rating Scales—Revised (CTRS-R) is a widely used standardized ...

Genetics of Wellbeing and Its Components Satisfaction with Life, Happiness, and Quality of Life: A Review and Meta-analysis of Heritability Studies

Wellbeing is a major topic of research across several disciplines, reflecting the increasing recognition of its strong value across major domains in life. Previous twin-family studies have revealed that individual differences in wellbeing are accounted for by both genetic as well as environmental factors. A systematic literature search identified 30 twin-family studies on wellbeing ...

Longitudinal Development of Hormone Levels and Grey Matter Density in 9 and 12-Year-Old Twins

Puberty is characterized by major changes in hormone levels and structural changes in the brain. To what extent these changes are associated and to what extent genes or environmental influences drive such an association is not clear. We acquired circulating levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol and testosterone and magnetic resonance images of ...