Behavior Genetics

http://link.springer.com/journal/10519

List of Papers (Total 166)

Indirect Genetic Effects for Growth Rate in Domestic Pigs Alter Aggressive and Manipulative Biting Behaviour

Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are heritable effects of an individual on phenotypic values of others, and may result from social interactions. We determined the behavioural consequences of selection for IGEs for growth (IGEg) in pigs in a G × E treatment design. Pigs (n = 480) were selected for high versus low IGEg with a contrast of 14 g average daily gain and were housed in ...

Genotype-Environment Correlation in the Era of DNA

One of John Loehlin’s many contributions to the field of behavioral genetics involves gene-environment (GE) correlation. The empirical base for GE correlation was research showing that environmental measures are nearly as heritable as behavioral measures and that genetic factors mediate correlations between environment and behavior. Attempts to identify genes responsible for these ...

Harmonization of Neuroticism and Extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium: an application of Item Response Theory

Mega- or meta-analytic studies (e.g. genome-wide association studies) are increasingly used in behavior genetics. An issue in such studies is that phenotypes are often measured by different instruments across study cohorts, requiring harmonization of measures so that more powerful fixed effect meta-analyses can be employed. Within the Genetics of Personality Consortium, we ...

GE Covariance Through Phenotype to Environment Transmission: An Assessment in Longitudinal Twin Data and Application to Childhood Anxiety

We considered identification of phenotype (at occasion t) to environment (at occasion t + 1) transmission in longitudinal model comprising genetic, common and unique environmental simplex models (autoregressions). This type of transmission, which gives rise to genotype-environment covariance, is considered to be important in developmental psychology. Having established identifying ...

Lindon J. Eaves, Ph.D., M.A. (Oxon), D.Sc. Theory-Model-Data

We begin this special issue by providing a glimpse into the career of Dr. Lindon J. Eaves, from the perspectives of a student, postdoc, instructor, assistant to associate and full professor over the last 20 odd years. We focus primarily on Lindon’s contributions to methodological issues and research designs to address them, in particular those related to models for extended ...

Common Genetic Variants Explain the Majority of the Correlation Between Height and Intelligence: The Generation Scotland Study

Greater height and higher intelligence test scores are predictors of better health outcomes. Here, we used molecular (single-nucleotide polymorphism) data to estimate the genetic correlation between height and general intelligence (g) in 6,815 unrelated subjects (median age 57, IQR 49–63) from the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study cohort. The phenotypic correlation ...

Cognitive Change in Older Women Using a Computerised Battery: A Longitudinal Quantitative Genetic Twin Study

Cognitive performance is known to change over age 45, especially processing speed. Studies to date indicate that change in performance with ageing is largely environmentally mediated, with little contribution from genetics. We estimated the heritability of a longitudinal battery of computerised cognitive tests including speed measures, using a classical twin design. 324 (127 MZ, ...

DNA Evidence for Strong Genome-Wide Pleiotropy of Cognitive and Learning Abilities

Very different neurocognitive processes appear to be involved in cognitive abilities such as verbal and non-verbal ability as compared to learning abilities taught in schools such as reading and mathematics. However, twin studies that compare similarity for monozygotic and dizygotic twins suggest that the same genes are largely responsible for genetic influence on these diverse ...

Exploring the Association Between Well-Being and Psychopathology in Adolescents

Promotion of mental well-being and prevention of emotional and behavioral problems are suggested to go hand in hand. The present study examined the association between subjective well-being (SWB) and psychopathology and investigated the etiology of this association in a large population-based cohort study of adolescent twins (n = 9,136) and their non-twin siblings (n = 1,474) aged ...

Genes of Experience: Explaining the Heritability of Putative Environmental Variables Through Their Association with Behavioural and Emotional Traits

An increasing body of evidence shows that many ‘environmental’ measures are heritable, indicating genetic involvement in environmental exposure (or gene–environment correlation). In the present study we attempt to clarify why three such ‘environmental’ measures (maternal negativity, paternal negativity and negative life events) are consistently found to be heritable. Through ...

Genetic Analysis of Rare Disorders: Bayesian Estimation of Twin Concordance Rates

Twin concordance rates provide insight into the possibility of a genetic background for a disease. These concordance rates are usually estimated within a frequentistic framework. Here we take a Bayesian approach. For rare diseases, estimation methods based on asymptotic theory cannot be applied due to very low cell probabilities. Moreover, a Bayesian approach allows a ...

The Aromatase Gene CYP19A1: Several Genetic and Functional Lines of Evidence Supporting a Role in Reading, Speech and Language

Inspired by the localization, on 15q21.2 of the CYP19A1 gene in the linkage region of speech and language disorders, and a rare translocation in a dyslexic individual that was brought to our attention, we conducted a series of studies on the properties of CYP19A1 as a candidate gene for dyslexia and related conditions. The aromatase enzyme is a member of the cytochrome P450 super ...

Genetic and Environmental Causes of Variation in Trait Resilience in Young People

The aim of this multi-informant twin study was to determine the relative role of genetic and environmental factors in explaining variation in trait resilience in adolescents. Participants were consenting families (N = 2,638 twins in 1,394 families), from seven national cohorts (age 12–18 years, both sexes) of monozygotic and dizygotic twins reared together. Questionnaire data on ...

Detecting Specific Genotype by Environment Interactions Using Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation in the Classical Twin Design

Considerable effort has been devoted to the analysis of genotype by environment (G × E) interactions in various phenotypic domains, such as cognitive abilities and personality. In many studies, environmental variables were observed (measured) variables. In case of an unmeasured environment, van der Sluis et al. (2006) proposed to study heteroscedasticity in the factor model using ...

Reconsidering the Heritability of Intelligence in Adulthood: Taking Assortative Mating and Cultural Transmission into Account

Heritability estimates of general intelligence in adulthood generally range from 75 to 85%, with all heritability due to additive genetic influences, while genetic dominance and shared environmental factors are absent, or too small to be detected. These estimates are derived from studies based on the classical twin design and are based on the assumption of random mating. Yet, ...

Telomere Length and Mental Well-Being in Elderly Men from the Netherlands and Greece

Telomeres, repetitive DNA sequences that promote chromosomal stability, have been related to different measures of mental well-being and self-rated health, but mainly in women during adulthood. We aimed to investigate whether accelerated telomere shortening is associated with poor mental well-being and poor self-rated health in community-dwelling elderly men. Leukocyte telomere ...

Thought Problems from Adolescence to Adulthood: Measurement Invariance and Longitudinal Heritability

This study investigates the longitudinal heritability in Thought Problems (TP) as measured with ten items from the Adult Self Report (ASR). There were ~9,000 twins, ~2,000 siblings and ~3,000 additional family members who participated in the study and who are registered at the Netherlands Twin Register. First an exploratory factor analysis was conducted to examine the underlying ...