Behavior Genetics

http://link.springer.com/journal/10519

List of Papers (Total 178)

Genetic Analysis of Rare Disorders: Bayesian Estimation of Twin Concordance Rates

Twin concordance rates provide insight into the possibility of a genetic background for a disease. These concordance rates are usually estimated within a frequentistic framework. Here we take a Bayesian approach. For rare diseases, estimation methods based on asymptotic theory cannot be applied due to very low cell probabilities. Moreover, a Bayesian approach allows a...

The Aromatase Gene CYP19A1: Several Genetic and Functional Lines of Evidence Supporting a Role in Reading, Speech and Language

Inspired by the localization, on 15q21.2 of the CYP19A1 gene in the linkage region of speech and language disorders, and a rare translocation in a dyslexic individual that was brought to our attention, we conducted a series of studies on the properties of CYP19A1 as a candidate gene for dyslexia and related conditions. The aromatase enzyme is a member of the cytochrome P450 super...

Genetic and Environmental Causes of Variation in Trait Resilience in Young People

The aim of this multi-informant twin study was to determine the relative role of genetic and environmental factors in explaining variation in trait resilience in adolescents. Participants were consenting families (N = 2,638 twins in 1,394 families), from seven national cohorts (age 12–18 years, both sexes) of monozygotic and dizygotic twins reared together. Questionnaire data on...

Detecting Specific Genotype by Environment Interactions Using Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation in the Classical Twin Design

Considerable effort has been devoted to the analysis of genotype by environment (G × E) interactions in various phenotypic domains, such as cognitive abilities and personality. In many studies, environmental variables were observed (measured) variables. In case of an unmeasured environment, van der Sluis et al. (2006) proposed to study heteroscedasticity in the factor model using...

Reconsidering the Heritability of Intelligence in Adulthood: Taking Assortative Mating and Cultural Transmission into Account

Heritability estimates of general intelligence in adulthood generally range from 75 to 85%, with all heritability due to additive genetic influences, while genetic dominance and shared environmental factors are absent, or too small to be detected. These estimates are derived from studies based on the classical twin design and are based on the assumption of random mating. Yet...

Telomere Length and Mental Well-Being in Elderly Men from the Netherlands and Greece

Telomeres, repetitive DNA sequences that promote chromosomal stability, have been related to different measures of mental well-being and self-rated health, but mainly in women during adulthood. We aimed to investigate whether accelerated telomere shortening is associated with poor mental well-being and poor self-rated health in community-dwelling elderly men. Leukocyte telomere...

Thought Problems from Adolescence to Adulthood: Measurement Invariance and Longitudinal Heritability

This study investigates the longitudinal heritability in Thought Problems (TP) as measured with ten items from the Adult Self Report (ASR). There were ~9,000 twins, ~2,000 siblings and ~3,000 additional family members who participated in the study and who are registered at the Netherlands Twin Register. First an exploratory factor analysis was conducted to examine the underlying...

Stable Genetic Effects on Symptoms of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence from Adolescence into Early Adulthood

Relatively little is known about how genetic influences on alcohol abuse and dependence (AAD) change with age. We examined the change in influence of genetic and environmental factors which explain symptoms of AAD from adolescence into early adulthood. Symptoms of AAD were assessed using the four AAD screening questions of the CAGE inventory. Data were obtained up to six times by...

Robust Association Tests Under Different Genetic Models, Allowing for Binary or Quantitative Traits and Covariates

The association of genetic variants with outcomes is usually assessed under an additive model, for example by the trend test. However, misspecification of the genetic model will lead to a reduction in power. More robust tests for association might therefore be preferred. A useful approach is to consider the maximum of the three test statistics under additive, dominant and...

Parents and Teachers Make Different Contributions to a Shared Perspective on Hyperactive–Impulsive and Inattentive Symptoms: A Multivariate Analysis of Parent and Teacher Ratings on the Symptom Domains of ADHD

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by developmentally inappropriate and impairing levels of inattentive and hyperactive–impulsive behaviours. We aimed to investigate the differential effects of parent and teacher ratings on inattention and hyperactivity–impulsivity and the extent of genetic overlap between the two behavioural dimensions. Multivariate...

Prior Mating Experience Modulates the Dispersal of Drosophila in Males More Than in Females

Cues from both an animal’s internal physiological state and its local environment may influence its decision to disperse. However, identifying and quantifying the causative factors underlying the initiation of dispersal is difficult in uncontrolled natural settings. In this study, we automatically monitored the movement of fruit flies and examined the influence of food...

A Simple Bias Correction in Linear Regression for Quantitative Trait Association Under Two-Tail Extreme Selection

Selective genotyping can increase power in quantitative trait association. One example of selective genotyping is two-tail extreme selection, but simple linear regression analysis gives a biased genetic effect estimate. Here, we present a simple correction for the bias.

A Note on False Positives and Power in G × E Modelling of Twin Data

The variance components models for gene–environment interaction proposed by Purcell in 2002 are widely used. In both the bivariate and the univariate parameterization of these models, the variance decomposition of trait T is a function of moderator M. We show that if M and T are correlated, and moderator M is correlated between twins as well, the univariate parameterization...

Sex-Specific Heterosis in Line Crosses of Mice Selectively Bred for High Locomotor Activity

When populations with similar histories of directional selection are crossed, their offspring may differ in mean phenotype as compared with the average for the parental populations, often exhibiting enhancement of the mean phenotype (termed heterosis or hybrid vigor). We tested for heterosis in a cross of two replicate lines of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel...

Adult Romantic Attachment, Negative Emotionality, and Depressive Symptoms in Middle Aged Men: A Multivariate Genetic Analysis

Adult romantic attachment styles reflect ways of relating in close relationships and are associated with depression and negative emotionality. We estimated the extent to which dimensions of romantic attachment and negative emotionality share genetic or environmental risk factors in 1,237 middle-aged men in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA). A common genetic factor...

Genetical Genomic Analysis of Complex Phenotypes Using the PhenoGen Website

Our laboratory has developed an online interactive resource called PhenoGen (http://​phenogen.​ucdenver.​edu) which provides an archive of brain and other organ gene expression data from a panel of 20 common inbred mouse strains, and three recombinant inbred (RI) panels (two mouse and one rat). DNA microarray data can also be uploaded to the site where numerous analytical tools...