Behavior Genetics

http://link.springer.com/journal/10519

List of Papers (Total 169)

Reconsidering the Heritability of Intelligence in Adulthood: Taking Assortative Mating and Cultural Transmission into Account

Heritability estimates of general intelligence in adulthood generally range from 75 to 85%, with all heritability due to additive genetic influences, while genetic dominance and shared environmental factors are absent, or too small to be detected. These estimates are derived from studies based on the classical twin design and are based on the assumption of random mating. Yet, ...

Telomere Length and Mental Well-Being in Elderly Men from the Netherlands and Greece

Telomeres, repetitive DNA sequences that promote chromosomal stability, have been related to different measures of mental well-being and self-rated health, but mainly in women during adulthood. We aimed to investigate whether accelerated telomere shortening is associated with poor mental well-being and poor self-rated health in community-dwelling elderly men. Leukocyte telomere ...

Thought Problems from Adolescence to Adulthood: Measurement Invariance and Longitudinal Heritability

This study investigates the longitudinal heritability in Thought Problems (TP) as measured with ten items from the Adult Self Report (ASR). There were ~9,000 twins, ~2,000 siblings and ~3,000 additional family members who participated in the study and who are registered at the Netherlands Twin Register. First an exploratory factor analysis was conducted to examine the underlying ...

Stable Genetic Effects on Symptoms of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence from Adolescence into Early Adulthood

Relatively little is known about how genetic influences on alcohol abuse and dependence (AAD) change with age. We examined the change in influence of genetic and environmental factors which explain symptoms of AAD from adolescence into early adulthood. Symptoms of AAD were assessed using the four AAD screening questions of the CAGE inventory. Data were obtained up to six times by ...

Robust Association Tests Under Different Genetic Models, Allowing for Binary or Quantitative Traits and Covariates

The association of genetic variants with outcomes is usually assessed under an additive model, for example by the trend test. However, misspecification of the genetic model will lead to a reduction in power. More robust tests for association might therefore be preferred. A useful approach is to consider the maximum of the three test statistics under additive, dominant and recessive ...

Parents and Teachers Make Different Contributions to a Shared Perspective on Hyperactive–Impulsive and Inattentive Symptoms: A Multivariate Analysis of Parent and Teacher Ratings on the Symptom Domains of ADHD

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by developmentally inappropriate and impairing levels of inattentive and hyperactive–impulsive behaviours. We aimed to investigate the differential effects of parent and teacher ratings on inattention and hyperactivity–impulsivity and the extent of genetic overlap between the two behavioural dimensions. Multivariate ...

A Simple Bias Correction in Linear Regression for Quantitative Trait Association Under Two-Tail Extreme Selection

Selective genotyping can increase power in quantitative trait association. One example of selective genotyping is two-tail extreme selection, but simple linear regression analysis gives a biased genetic effect estimate. Here, we present a simple correction for the bias.

A Note on False Positives and Power in G × E Modelling of Twin Data

The variance components models for gene–environment interaction proposed by Purcell in 2002 are widely used. In both the bivariate and the univariate parameterization of these models, the variance decomposition of trait T is a function of moderator M. We show that if M and T are correlated, and moderator M is correlated between twins as well, the univariate parameterization ...

Sex-Specific Heterosis in Line Crosses of Mice Selectively Bred for High Locomotor Activity

When populations with similar histories of directional selection are crossed, their offspring may differ in mean phenotype as compared with the average for the parental populations, often exhibiting enhancement of the mean phenotype (termed heterosis or hybrid vigor). We tested for heterosis in a cross of two replicate lines of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running ...

Adult Romantic Attachment, Negative Emotionality, and Depressive Symptoms in Middle Aged Men: A Multivariate Genetic Analysis

Adult romantic attachment styles reflect ways of relating in close relationships and are associated with depression and negative emotionality. We estimated the extent to which dimensions of romantic attachment and negative emotionality share genetic or environmental risk factors in 1,237 middle-aged men in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA). A common genetic factor largely ...

Genetical Genomic Analysis of Complex Phenotypes Using the PhenoGen Website

Our laboratory has developed an online interactive resource called PhenoGen (http://​phenogen.​ucdenver.​edu) which provides an archive of brain and other organ gene expression data from a panel of 20 common inbred mouse strains, and three recombinant inbred (RI) panels (two mouse and one rat). DNA microarray data can also be uploaded to the site where numerous analytical tools can ...

Prior Mating Experience Modulates the Dispersal of Drosophila in Males More Than in Females

Cues from both an animal’s internal physiological state and its local environment may influence its decision to disperse. However, identifying and quantifying the causative factors underlying the initiation of dispersal is difficult in uncontrolled natural settings. In this study, we automatically monitored the movement of fruit flies and examined the influence of food ...

From Molecules to Behavior: Lessons from the Study of Rare Genetic Disorders

Rare diseases are defined as conditions with a prevalence of less than 1/2,000. To date between 6,000 and 7,000 rare diseases have been identified and many of those have manifestations that include intellectual disability, developmental disorders or other behavioural phenotypes. In this special issue we bring together a range of papers where rare diseases were used as models to ...

Does Cognitive Impairment Explain Behavioral and Social Problems of Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1?

Thirty NF1-patients (mean age 11.7 years, SD = 3.3) and 30 healthy controls (mean age 12.5 years, SD = 3.1) were assessed on social skills, autistic traits, hyperactivity-inattention, emotional problems, conduct problems, and peer problems. Cognitive control, information processing speed, and social information processing were measured using 5 computer tasks. GLM analyses of ...

Using Non-Normal SEM to Resolve the ACDE Model in the Classical Twin Design

One of the biggest problems in classical twin studies is that it cannot estimate additive genetic (A), non-additive genetic (D), shared environmental (C), and non-shared environmental (E) effects, simultaneously, because the model, referred to as the ACDE model, has negative degrees of freedom when using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Therefore, instead of the ACDE model, the ...

No Associations Between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Corticoid Receptor Genes and Heart Rate and Cortisol Responses to a Standardized Social Stress Test in Adolescents: The TRAILS Study

Previously, sequence variation in the glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor genes (NR3C1 and NR3C2, respectively) have been found to be associated with physiological stress responses to social stress tests in small samples of adult men and oral contraceptives (OC) using women. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GR (23EK-rs6190, ...

PER2 Variation is Associated with Diurnal Preference in a Korean Young Population

The PER2 gene has been reported to influence diurnal preference. In this study, we have attempted to characterize the associations between the PER2 gene polymorphisms and diurnal preference in a population of healthy young subjects, controlling for the social and environmental confounding factors. Subjects were 299 students in a college, carefully selected to be mentally and ...

Influence of Candidate Genes on Attention Problems in Children: A Longitudinal Study

Attention problems form one of the core characteristics of Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), a multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder. From twin research it is clear that genes play a considerable role in the etiology and in the stability of ADHD in childhood. Association studies have focused on genes involved in the dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but ...

Investigation of Dyslexia and SLI Risk Variants in Reading- and Language-Impaired Subjects

Dyslexia (or reading disability) and specific language impairment (or SLI) are common childhood disorders that show considerable co-morbidity and diagnostic overlaps and have been suggested to share some genetic aetiology. Recently, genetic risk variants have been identified for SLI and dyslexia enabling the direct evaluation of possible shared genetic influences between these ...

Gene-Environment Interaction in the Etiology of Mathematical Ability Using SNP Sets

Mathematics ability and disability is as heritable as other cognitive abilities and disabilities, however its genetic etiology has received relatively little attention. In our recent genome-wide association study of mathematical ability in 10-year-old children, 10 SNP associations were nominated from scans of pooled DNA and validated in an individually genotyped sample. In this ...