Behavior Genetics

http://link.springer.com/journal/10519

List of Papers (Total 166)

Delineation of Violence from Functional Aggression in Mice: An Ethological Approach

The present study aims at delineating violence from aggression, using genetically selected high (SAL, TA, NC900) and low (LAL, TNA NC100) aggressive mouse strains. Unlike aggression, violence lacks intrinsic control, environmental constraints as well as functional endpoints. Conventional measures namely latency, frequency and duration were used initially to accomplish the objective ...

Effects of Genetic Background, Gender, and Early Environmental Factors on Isolation-Induced Ultrasonic Calling in Mouse Pups: An Embryo-Transfer Study

Infant rodents emit ultrasonic vocalizations when isolated from dam and littermates. Due to the context of their occurrence and the well described bidirectional modulation by substances known for their capability to influence emotionality, it was postulated that such calls reflect a negative affective state akin anxiety. Comparative studies observed pronounced differences in ...

Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Stability of Withdrawn Behavior in Children: A Longitudinal, Multi-informant Twin Study

We examined the contribution of genetic and environmental influences on the stability of withdrawn behavior (WB) in childhood using a longitudinal multiple rater twin design. Maternal and paternal ratings on the withdrawn subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were obtained from 14,889 families when the twins were 3, 7, 10 and 12 years old. A longitudinal psychometric ...

Genome Scan of a Nonword Repetition Phenotype in Families with Dyslexia: Evidence for Multiple Loci

To understand the genetic architecture of dyslexia and identify the locations of genes involved, we performed linkage analyses in multigenerational families using a phonological memory phenotype—Nonword Repetition (NWR). A genome scan was first performed on 438 people from 51 families (DS-1) and linkage was assessed using variance components (VC), Bayesian oligogenic (BO), and ...

5-HTTLPR and Gender Moderate Changes in Negative Affect Responses to Tryptophan Infusion

Expression of the serotonin transporter is affected by the genotype of the 5-HTTLPR (short and long forms) as well as the genotype of the SNP rs25531 within this region. Based on the combined genotypes for these polymorphisms, we designated each allele as a high or low expressing allele according to established expression levels—resulting in HiHi, HiLo, & LoLo genotype groups for ...

A General Test for Gene–Environment Interaction in Sib Pair-based Association Analysis of Quantitative Traits

Several association studies support the hypothesis that genetic variants can modify the influence of environmental factors on behavioral outcomes, i.e., G × E interaction. The case-control design used in these studies is powerful, but population stratification with respect to allele frequencies can give rise to false positive or false negative associations. Stratification with ...

Deletion of Glucose Transporter GLUT8 in Mice Increases Locomotor Activity

Transport of glucose into neuronal cells is predominantly mediated by the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3. In addition, GLUT8 is expressed in some regions of the brain. By in situ hybridization we detected GLUT8-mRNA in hippocampus, thalamus, and cortex. However, its cellular and physiological function is still unknown. Thus, GLUT8 knockout (Slc2a8 −/−) mice were used for a ...

Gene-Environment Interaction in Adults’ IQ Scores: Measures of Past and Present Environment

Gene-environment interaction was studied in a sample of young (mean age 26 years, N = 385) and older (mean age 49 years, N = 370) adult males and females. Full scale IQ scores (FSIQ) were analyzed using biometric models in which additive genetic (A), common environmental (C), and unique environmental (E) effects were allowed to depend on environmental measures. Moderators under ...

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Individual Differences in Attitudes Toward Homosexuality: An Australian Twin Study

Previous research has shown that many heterosexuals hold negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality (homophobia). Although a great deal of research has focused on the profile of homophobic individuals, this research provides little theoretical insight into the aetiology of homophobia. To examine genetic and environmental influences on variation in attitudes toward ...

The Nature of Nurture: A Genomewide Association Scan for Family Chaos

Widely used measures of the environment, especially the family environment of children, show genetic influence in dozens of twin and adoption studies. This phenomenon is known as gene-environment correlation in which genetically driven influences of individuals affect their environments. We conducted the first genome-wide association (GWA) analysis of an environmental measure. We ...

Environmental Factors in Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior: Evidence from Discordant and Concordant Monozygotic Twins

To investigate environmental factors that protect against or exacerbate obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, we selected 25 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant, 17 MZ twin pairs concordant high and 34 MZ pairs concordant low on OC symptoms from a large longitudinal Dutch sample of adult twin pairs and their family members, applying stringent criteria for OC symptomatology. Data ...

Evaluation of the Serotonergic Genes htr1A, htr1B, htr2A, and slc6A4 in Aggressive Behavior of Golden Retriever Dogs

Aggressive behavior displays a high heritability in our study group of Golden Retriever dogs. Alterations in brain serotonin metabolism have been described in aggressive dogs before. Here, we evaluate whether four genes of the canine serotonergic system, coding for the serotonin receptors 1A, 1B, and 2A, and the serotonin transporter, could play a major role in aggression in Golden ...

Heritability of Self-reported Phobic Fear

Twin studies on fear and phobia suggest moderate genetic effects. However, results are inconclusive regarding the presence of dominant genetic effects and sex differences. Using an extended twin design, including male and female twins (n = 5,465) and their siblings (n = 1,624), we examined the genetic and environmental influences on blood-injury, social, and agoraphobic fear and ...

Modeling Genetic and Environmental Factors to Increase Heritability and Ease the Identification of Candidate Genes for Birth Weight: A Twin Study

Heritability estimates of birth weight have been inconsistent. Possible explanations are heritability changes during gestational age or the influence of covariates (e.g. chorionicity). The aim of this study was to model birth weights of twins across gestational age and to quantify the genetic and environmental components. We intended to reduce the common environmental variance to ...

Power Calculations Using Exact Data Simulation: A Useful Tool for Genetic Study Designs

Statistical power calculations constitute an essential first step in the planning of scientific studies. If sufficient summary statistics are available, power calculations are in principle straightforward and computationally light. In designs, which comprise distinct groups (e.g., MZ & DZ twins), sufficient statistics can be calculated within each group, and analyzed in a ...

Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Relation Between Attention Problems and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Objective The assessment of symptoms of ADHD in children is usually based on a clinical interview or a behavior checklist. The aim of the present study is to investigate the extent to which these instruments measure an underlying construct and to estimate the genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in ADHD. Methods Maternal ratings were collected on 10,916 ...

Speed, Variability, and Timing of Motor Output in ADHD: Which Measures are Useful for Endophenotypic Research?

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) shares a genetic basis with motor coordination problems and probably motor timing problems. In line with this, comparable problems in motor timing should be observed in first degree relatives and might, therefore, form a suitable endophenotypic candidate. This hypothesis was investigated in 238 ADHD-families (545 children) and 147 ...

Identification of Genetic and Epigenetic Variations in a Rat Model for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

A combination of genetic variations, epimutations and environmental factors may be involved in the etiology of complex neurodevelopmental disorders like schizophrenia. To study such disorders, we use apomorphine-unsusceptible (APO-UNSUS) Wistar rats and their phenotypic counterpart apomorphine-susceptible (APO-SUS) rats that display a complex phenotype remarkably similar to that of ...

The Familial Clustering of Age at Menarche in Extended Twin Families

The timing of puberty is complex, possibly involving many genetic factors that may interact with environmental influences. Familial resemblance for age at menarche was studied in a sample of 4,995 female twins, 1,296 sisters, 2,946 mothers and 635 female spouses of male twins. They had indicated their age at menarche as part of a larger longitudinal survey. We assessed assortative ...

Variance Decomposition Using an IRT Measurement Model

Large scale research projects in behaviour genetics and genetic epidemiology are often based on questionnaire or interview data. Typically, a number of items is presented to a number of subjects, the subjects’ sum scores on the items are computed, and the variance of sum scores is decomposed into a number of variance components. This paper discusses several disadvantages of the ...

Assessment and Etiology of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Boys and Girls

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are more common in boys than girls. In this paper, we investigated whether the prevalence differences are attributable to measurement bias. In addition, we examined sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on variation in these behaviors. Teachers completed the Conners Teacher ...

The Association between Conduct Problems and the Initiation and Progression of Marijuana Use during Adolescence: A Genetic Analysis across Time

The present study used a prospective, longitudinal design to investigate genetic and environmental influences on the association between earlier conduct problems and the initiation and progression of marijuana use during adolescence. Parent- and teacher-reported conduct problems assessed at Time 1 (1996) and self-reported marijuana use assessed at Time 2 (2004) were available for ...