Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials

http://www.ann-clinmicrob.com/

List of Papers (Total 488)

Benzoylphenyl thiocyanates are new, effective inhibitors of the mycobacterial resuscitation promoting factor B protein

Resuscitation promoting factors (Rpfs) are the proteins involved in the process of reactivation of the dormant cells of mycobacteria. Recently a new class of nitrophenylthiocyanates (NPTs), capable of inhibiting the biological and enzymatic activities of Rpfs has been discovered. In the current study the inhibitory properties of the compounds containing both nitro and thiocyanate...

Treating tuberculosis with high doses of anti-TB drugs: mechanisms and outcomes

Tuberculosis (TB) is considered as one of the most serious threats to public health in many parts of the world. The threat is even more severe in the developing countries where there is a lack of advanced medical amenities and contemporary anti-TB drugs. In such situations, dosage optimization of existing medication regimens seems to be the only viable option. Therapeutic drug...

Paramedical staffs knowledge and attitudes towards antimicrobial resistance in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

The continuing emergence, development and spread of pathogenic organisms that are resistant to antimicrobials are a cause of increasing concern. The control of antimicrobial resistance requires knowledge of factors causing antimicrobial resistance, good attitudes towards the intervention strategies as well as changes in antibiotic prescribing behavior of health workers. Hence...

Voriconazole and posaconazole therapeutic drug monitoring: a retrospective study

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) aims to minimize the clinical impact of posaconazole and voriconazole pharmacokinetic variability. However, its benefits on clinical outcomes are still being defined. Additionally, TDM data are limited for posaconazole IV and delayed-release tablet formulations among specific patient populations, including critically ill. The aim of this study...

Diagnostic testing for Legionnaires’ disease

Legionnaires’ disease is commonly diagnosed clinically using a urinary antigen test. The urinary antigen test is highly accurate for L. pneumophila serogroup 1, however other diagnostic tests should also be utilized in conjunction with the urinary antigen as many other Legionella species and serogroups are pathogenic. Culturing of patient specimens remains the gold standard for...

Surveillance of life-long antibiotics: a review of antibiotic prescribing practices in an Australian Healthcare Network

Background The rise of antimicrobial use in the twentieth century has significantly reduced morbidity due to infection, however it has also brought with it the rise of increasing resistance. Some patients are on prolonged, if not “life-long” course of antibiotics. The reasons for this are varied, and include non-infectious indications. We aimed to study the characteristics of...

Anti-staphylococcal activity resulting from epithelial lining fluid (ELF) concentrations of amikacin inhale administered via the pulmonary drug delivery system

Background Amikacin inhale (BAY41-6551), a unique drug—device combination of a specially formulated drug solution and a pulmonary drug delivery system device (AMK-I) is currently under phase III study as an adjunctive therapy to IV antibiotics for the treatment of Gram-negative pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. While the epidemiology of nosocomial pneumonia is...

The occurrence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli carrying aminoglycoside resistance genes in urinary tract infections in Saudi Arabia

Background The infection and prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is a worldwide problem, and the presence of ESBLs varies between countries. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of plasmid-mediated ESBL/AmpC/carbapenemase/aminoglycoside resistance gene expression in Escherichia coli using phenotypic and genotypic techniques. Methods A total of 58 E. coli...

Assessment of antibiotic resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae exposed to sequential in vitro antibiotic treatments

Background Bacteria treated with different classes of antibiotics exhibit changes in susceptibility to successive antibiotic treatments. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of sequential antibiotic treatments on the development of antibiotic resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae associated with β-lactamase and efflux pump activities. Methods The antibiotic...

Genetic elements associated with antimicrobial resistance among avian pathogenic Escherichia coli

Background Avian-pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are pathogenic strains of E. coli that are responsible for one of the most predominant bacterial disease affecting poultry worldwide called avian colibacillosis. This study describes the genetic determinants implicated in antimicrobial resistance among APEC isolated from different broiler farms in Egypt. Methods A total of 116...

A prospective observational cohort study in primary care practices to identify factors associated with treatment failure in Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections

Background The incidence of outpatient visits for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) has substantially increased over the last decade. The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has made the management of S. aureus SSTIs complex and challenging. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors contributing to treatment...

Management of infection by the Zika virus

A panel of national experts was convened by the Brazilian Infectious Diseases Society in order to organize the national recommendations for the management of zika virus infection. The focus of this document is the diagnosis, both clinical and laboratorial, and appropriate treatment of the diverse manifestations of this infection, ranging from acute mild disease to Guillain-Barr...

Bibliometric analysis of global scientific research on carbapenem resistance (1986–2015)

Background Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge and carbapenem resistance, in particular, is considered an urgent global health threat. This study was carried out to give a bibliometric overview of literature on carbapenem resistance. In specific, number of publications, top productive countries and institutes, highly cited articles, citation analysis, co...

Rapid screening for antibiotic resistance elements on the RNA transcript, protein and enzymatic activity level

Background The emerging threat posed by antibiotic resistance has affected public health systems all over the world. Surveillance of resistant bacteria in clinical settings and identifying them in mixed cultures is of paramount importance and can contribute to the control of their spreading. Culture-independent monitoring approaches are highly desirable, since they yield results...

Extraction of total nucleic acids from bacterial isolates using the bioMérieux NucliSENS easyMAG total nucleic acid extractor

The BioMerieux NucliSENS easyMAG total nucleic acid extractor was evaluated for use on bacterial isolates in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Forty eight isolates were extracted, yielding quantifiable amounts of DNA for all isolates. The easyMAG is appropriate for DNA extraction from bacterial isolates and will be incorporated in the clinical laboratory.

Emerging azithromycin-resistance among the Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Hungary

Background In the 1990s, azithromycin became the drug of choice for many infectious diseases but emerging resistance to the drug has only been reported in the last decade. In the last 5 years, the National Neisseria gonorrhoeae Reference Laboratory of Hungary (NNGRLH) has also observed an increased number of N. gonorrhoeae strains resistant to azithromycin. The aim of this study...

Ethnomedicines and anti-parasitic activities of Pakistani medicinal plants against Plasmodia and Leishmania parasites

Background Leishmaniasis and malaria are the two most common parasitic diseases and responsible for large number of deaths per year particularly in developing countries like Pakistan. Majority of Pakistan population rely on medicinal plants due to their low socio-economic status. The present review was designed to gather utmost fragmented published data on traditionally used...

Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from various healthcare institutions in Nairobi, Kenya: a cross sectional study

Background Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has established itself over the years as a major cause of morbidity and mortality both within the community and in healthcare settings. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in particular has been a major cause of nosocomial infections resulting in significant increase in healthcare costs. In Africa, the MRSA prevalence has been shown...

Smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and associated factors among homeless individuals in Dessie and Debre Birhan towns, Northeast Ethiopia

Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the globe’s deadliest communicable diseases. The homeless individuals are at high risk to acquire TB and multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB), because of their poor living conditions and risky behaviors. Tuberculosis and MDR-TB in the homeless individuals can pose a risk to entire communities. However, the magnitude of the problem is not...

Trends in paediatric and adult bloodstream infections at a Ghanaian referral hospital: a retrospective study

Background Bloodstream infections (BSI) are life-threatening emergencies. Identification of the common pathogens and their susceptibility patterns is necessary for timely empirical intervention. Methods We conducted a 4-year retrospective analysis of blood cultures from all patients excluding neonates at the Korle-Bu Teaching hospital, Ghana, from January 2010 through December...

Performance evaluation of a rapid whole-blood immunoassay for the detection of IgG antibodies against Helicobacter pylori in daily clinical practice

Background A growing number of rapid Helicobacter pylori antibody tests are commercially available now, however, some of these tests are often used without sufficient evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a commercially available rapid whole-blood immunoassay (gabControl ® H. pylori; gabmed GmbH, Köln, Germany), for the qualitative detection of IgG...

Development of a fast and low-cost qPCR assay for diagnosis of acute gas pharyngitis

Background Group A streptococci (GAS) are the most common bacterial cause of acute pharyngitis and account for 15–30 % of cases of acute pharyngitis in children and 5–10 % of cases in adults. In this study, a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) based GAS detection assay in pharyngeal swab specimens was developed. Methods The qPCR assay was compared with the gold standard bacterial...

Comparison of methods for the identification of microorganisms isolated from blood cultures

Background Bloodstream infections are responsible for thousands of deaths each year. The rapid identification of the microorganisms causing these infections permits correct therapeutic management that will improve the prognosis of the patient. In an attempt to reduce the time spent on this step, microorganism identification devices have been developed, including the VITEK ® 2...