PLOS Currents: Outbreaks

http://currents.plos.org/outbreaks/

List of Papers (Total 145)

A Psittacosis Outbreak among English Office Workers with Little or No Contact with Birds, August 2015

Introduction: On 14th August 2015 an office manager informed Public Health England of five employees known to have been diagnosed with pneumonia over the previous three weeks. We investigated to establish whether an outbreak occurred and to identify and control the source of infection. Methods: We undertook case finding for self-reported pneumonia cases at local businesses (July...

Analyzing the Local Epidemiological Profile of Malaria Transmission in the Brazilian Amazon Between 2010 and 2015

Introduction: Malaria still is a public health problem in the Americas. In 2015, Brazil accounted for 37% of all cases in the Americas, and of these cases, 99.5% were located in the Brazilian Amazon. Despite the mobilization of resources from the Brazilian National Plan for Malaria Control, too many municipalities have high transmission levels. The objective of this study is to...

Human Orthobunyavirus Infections, Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil

Introduction: Several orthobunyaviruses are important arthropod-borne pathogens, responsible for a variety of diseases in humans, from acute febrile illness to encephalitis. Methods: We collected serum samples from a series of dengue suspected cases in Tefé, a mid-size city located in the interior of the Amazonas state, Brazil. Viral RNA extraction was performed, and specimens...

A Nosocomial Outbreak of Clinical Sepsis in a Neonatal Care Unit (NCU) in Port-Au-Prince Haiti, July 2014 – September 2015.

Introduction Between July 2014 and September 2015, a neonatal care unit (NCU) in Port Au Prince, Haiti, experienced an outbreak of sepsis, most probably due to nosocomial transmission of Extended Beta Lactamase (ESBL) producing gram negative bacteria, included Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods We describe the epidemiological and microbiological activities performed as part of the...

Epidemiology of the Zika Virus Outbreak in the Cabo Verde Islands, West Africa

Introduction: The Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the island nation of Cabo Verde was of unprecedented magnitude in Africa and the first to be associated with microcephaly in the continent. Methods: Using a simple mathematical framework we present a first epidemiological assessment of attack and observation rates from 7,580 ZIKV notified cases and 18 microcephaly reports between...

Epidemiological Review of Francisella Tularensis: A Case Study in the Complications of Dual Diagnoses

Introduction: Tularemia is a rare but potentially fatal disease that develops in numerous wild and domestic animals, including lagomorphs, rodents, cats, and humans.  Francisella tularensis bacterium, the causative agent of tularemia, was identified by veterinary personnel at Fort Riley, Kansas during a routine post-mortum evaluation of a domestic feline. However, before formal...

Incidence Prediction for the 2017-2018 Influenza Season in the United States with an Evolution-informed Model

Introduction: Seasonal influenza is responsible for a high disease burden in the United States and worldwide. Predicting outbreak size in advance can contribute to the timely control of seasonal influenza by informing health care and vaccination planning. Methods: Recently, a process-based model was developed for forecasting incidence dynamics ahead of the season, with the...

Detecting Local Zika Virus Transmission in the Continental United States: A Comparison of Surveillance Strategies

Introduction: The 2015-2017 Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas has driven efforts to strengthen surveillance systems and to develop interventions, testing, and travel recommendations. In the continental U.S. and Hawaii, where limited transmission has been observed, detecting local transmission is a key public health objective. We assessed the effectiveness of three...

Excess Mortality Related to Chikungunya Epidemics in the Context of Co-circulation of Other Arboviruses in Brazil

Introduction: Chikungunya is an emerging arbovirus that reached the Western Hemisphere at the end of 2013. Studies in the Indian Ocean and India suggest that passive surveillance systems cannot recognize many of deaths associated with chikungunya, which can be inferred by an increase in the overall mortality observed during chikungunya epidemics. Objective: We assess the...

Enhancing Ebola Virus Disease Surveillance and Prevention in Counties Without Confirmed Cases in Rural Liberia: Experiences from Sinoe County During the Flare-up in Monrovia, April to June, 2016

Introduction: During the flare-ups of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Liberia, Sinoe County reactivated the multi-sectorial EVD control strategy in order to be ready to respond to the eventual reintroduction of cases. This paper describes the impacts of the interventions implemented in Sinoe County during the last flare-up in Monrovia, from April 1 to June 9, 2016, using the...

An Outbreak of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection Linked to a “Black Friday” Piercing Event

Introduction Outbreaks linked to cosmetic piercing are rare, but can cause significant illness. We report the investigation and management of a point-source outbreak that occurred during a Black Friday promotional event in North West England. Methods Outbreak investigation was led by Public Health England, and included active case finding among individuals pierced at a piercing...

First Wave of the 2016-17 Cholera Outbreak in Hodeidah City, Yemen - Acf Experience and Lessons Learned

Introduction: Although cases were reported only in 2010 and 2011, cholera is probably endemic in Yemen. In the context of a civil war, a cholera outbreak was declared in different parts of the country October 6th, 2016. This paper describes the ACF outbreak response in Hodeidah city from October 28th, 2016 to February 28th, 2017 in order to add knowledge to this large outbreak...

Fetal Zika Virus Infection in Vietnam

As of 13 July 2016, 13 countries have reported fetal Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Here we report a case of fetal ZIKV infection that resulted from an infection originating in Vietnam.

Multi-provincial Salmonellosis Outbreak Related to Newly Hatched Chicks and Poults: A Genomics Perspective

Background: A multi-provincial outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was linked to newly hatched chicks and poults from a single hatchery during the spring of 2015. In total, there were 61 human cases that were epidemiologically confirmed to be linked to the chicks and poults and the outbreak was deemed to have ended in the summer of 2015. Methods: PulseNet Canada...

Estimation of Time Period for Effective Human Inhalational Anthrax Treatment Including Antitoxin Therapy

Introduction: Infrequent natural human inhalational anthrax cases coupled with high bioterrorism risk have brought about use of animal models to serve as the basis for approval of novel treatments. For inhalational anthrax, protective antigen (PA) drives much of the mortality, and raxibacumab, an anti-PA monoclonal antibody, has been approved for therapeutic use using the Animal...

Genomic Characterization Helps Dissecting an Outbreak of Listeriosis in Northern Italy

Introduction Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a bacterium widely distributed in nature and able to contaminate food processing environments, including those of dairy products. Lm is a primary public health issue, due to the very low infectious dose and the ability to produce severe outcomes, in particular in elderly, newborns, pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. Methods...

Integrating Environmental Monitoring and Mosquito Surveillance to Predict Vector-borne Disease: Prospective Forecasts of a West Nile Virus Outbreak

Introduction: Predicting the timing and locations of future mosquito-borne disease outbreaks has the potential to improve the targeting of mosquito control and disease prevention efforts. Here, we present and evaluate prospective forecasts made prior to and during the 2016 West Nile virus (WNV) season in South Dakota, a hotspot for human WNV transmission in the United States...

No Evidence of On-farm Circulation of Avian Influenza H5 Subtype in Ca Mau Province, Southern Vietnam, March 2016 – January 2017

Background: Subtype H5N1 avian influenza viruses, both high pathogenicity and low pathogenicity, have been enzootic in Vietnam since 2001.  The viruses are readily identified at live bird markets, but virus prevalence on smallholder poultry is typically zero or very low.  If the true direction of the viral transmission chain is farm to market, it is unknown why farm prevalence...

Rapid Assessment Zika Virus Knowledge Among Clinical Specialists in Singapore: A Cross-sectional Survey

Introduction: We report the results of a rapid assessment of Zika virus awareness among key clinical specialties in Singapore. Methods: Between June 6 and June 19, 2016 we conducted an online survey of doctors working in obstetrics and gynaecology, neonatology and paediatrics in Singapore. The survey included 15 multiple choice questions to measure respondents' knowledge of Zika...

Spatial Determinants of Ebola Virus Disease Risk for the West African Epidemic

Introduction: Although many studies have investigated the probability of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks while other studies have simulated the size and speed of EVD outbreaks, few have investigated the environmental and population-level predictors of Ebola transmission once an outbreak is underway. Identifying strong predictors of transmission could help guide and target...

Vaccine Hesitancy: In Search of the Risk Communication Comfort Zone

Introduction: This paper reports the findings of a national online survey to parents of children aged 5 and younger. The objectives of the study were to assess parental understanding of childhood immunizations, identify sources of information that they trust for vaccine-related content, assess where parents with young children stand on the key issues in the public debate about...

Does Zika Virus Cause Microcephaly - Applying the Bradford Hill Viewpoints

Introduction: Zika virus has been documented since 1952, but been associated with mild, self-limiting disease. Zika virus is classified as an arbovirus from a family of Flaviviridae and primarily spread by Aedes Aegypti mosquitos. However, in a large outbreak in Brazil in 2015, Zika virus has been associated with microcephaly. Methods: In this review we applied the Bradford-Hill...

First Report of the East-Central South African Genotype of Chikungunya Virus in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus that causes an acute febrile syndrome with a severe and debilitating arthralgia. In Brazil, the Asian and East-Central South African (ECSA) genotypes are circulating in the north and northeast of the country, respectively. In 2015, the first autochthonous cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were reported but until now the...