PLOS Medicine

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List of Papers (Total 2,793)

Increased Duration of Paid Maternity Leave Lowers Infant Mortality in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Quasi-Experimental Study

Background Maternity leave reduces neonatal and infant mortality rates in high-income countries. However, the impact of maternity leave on infant health has not been rigorously evaluated in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this study, we utilized a difference-in-differences approach to evaluate whether paid maternity leave policies affect infant mortality in LMICs. ...

Performance of the GeneXpert Ebola Assay for Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease in Sierra Leone: A Field Evaluation Study

Background Throughout the Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa, field laboratory testing for EVD has relied on complex, multi-step real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assays; an accurate sample-to-answer RT-PCR test would reduce time to results and potentially increase access to testing. We evaluated the performance of the Cepheid GeneXpert Ebola assay on ...

Comparison of the Schwartz and CKD-EPI Equations for Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children, Adolescents, and Adults: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

Background Estimating kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is of utmost importance in many clinical conditions. However, very few studies have evaluated the performance of GFR estimating equations over all ages and degrees of kidney impairment. We evaluated the reliability of two major equations for GFR estimation, the CKD-EPI and Schwartz equations, with urinary clearance of ...

The Community As the Patient in Malaria-Endemic Areas: Preempting Drug Resistance with Multiple First-Line Therapies

Maciej F. Boni and colleagues propose deploying multiple first-line combination therapies against malaria within a community to delay drug-resistance evolution.

Pragmatic Trials for Noncommunicable Diseases: Relieving Constraints

In this month's editorial, PLOS Medicine Editorial Board member Anushka Patel and Ruth Webster discuss how applying rules for drug efficacy trials can impede pragmatic trials of interventions for noncommunicable diseases.

Global Role and Burden of Influenza in Pediatric Respiratory Hospitalizations, 1982–2012: A Systematic Analysis

Background The global burden of pediatric severe respiratory illness is substantial, and influenza viruses contribute to this burden. Systematic surveillance and testing for influenza among hospitalized children has expanded globally over the past decade. However, only a fraction of the data has been used to estimate influenza burden. In this analysis, we use surveillance data to ...

Compassionate and Proactive Interventions by Health Workers in the United Kingdom: A Better Approach to Prevent and Respond to Female Genital Mutilation?

Amasanti and colleagues consider female genital mutilation in the UK, how overly intrusive efforts to help might make the problem worse, and how best to move forwards.

Routine Pediatric Enterovirus 71 Vaccination in China: a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

Background China accounted for 87% (9.8 million/11.3 million) of all hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases reported to WHO during 2010–2014. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for most of the severe HFMD cases. Three EV71 vaccines recently demonstrated good efficacy in children aged 6–71 mo. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of routine pediatric EV71 vaccination in ...

Planned Repeat Cesarean Section at Term and Adverse Childhood Health Outcomes: A Record-Linkage Study

Background Global cesarean section (CS) rates range from 1% to 52%, with a previous CS being the commonest indication. Labour following a previous CS carries risk of scar rupture, with potential for offspring hypoxic brain injury, leading to high rates of repeat elective CS. However, the effect of delivery by CS on long-term outcomes in children is unclear. Increasing evidence ...

An Uninformative Truth: The Logic of Amarin’s Off-Label Promotion

Spencer Phillips Hey and Aaron Kesselheim propose that informativeness—asserting scientific facts—rather than truthfulness ought to be the standard for regulating commercial speech about pharmaceuticals.

Length of Stay After Childbirth in 92 Countries and Associated Factors in 30 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Compilation of Reported Data and a Cross-sectional Analysis from Nationally Representative Surveys

Background Following childbirth, women need to stay sufficiently long in health facilities to receive adequate care. Little is known about length of stay following childbirth in low- and middle-income countries or its determinants. Methods and Findings We described length of stay after facility delivery in 92 countries. We then created a conceptual framework of the main drivers of ...

Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Renin–Angiotensin System Blockade in Adult Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review with Network Meta-Analyses

Background Medications aimed at inhibiting the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) have been used extensively for preventing cardiovascular and renal complications in patients with diabetes, but data that compare their clinical effectiveness are limited. We aimed to compare the effects of classes of RAS blockers on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in adults with diabetes. Methods and ...

Trans-Pacific Partnership Provisions in Intellectual Property, Transparency, and Investment Chapters Threaten Access to Medicines in the US and Elsewhere

Brook Baker describes the potential harms to global health from the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement and its failure to balance the interests of patients and the public with those of industry.

Translational Research for Tuberculosis Elimination: Priorities, Challenges, and Actions

Christian Lienhardt and colleagues describe the research efforts needed to end the global tuberculosis epidemic by 2035.

Antibiotic Resistance in India: Drivers and Opportunities for Action

Ramanan Laxminarayan and Ranjit Roy Chaudhury examine the factors encouraging the emergence of antibiotic resistance in India, the implications nationally and internationally, and what might be done to help.

A Novel Brief Therapy for Patients Who Attempt Suicide: A 24-months Follow-Up Randomized Controlled Study of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP)

Background Attempted suicide is the main risk factor for suicide and repeated suicide attempts. However, the evidence for follow-up treatments reducing suicidal behavior in these patients is limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP) in reducing suicidal behavior. ASSIP is a novel brief ...

Experimental Treatment with Favipiravir for Ebola Virus Disease (the JIKI Trial): A Historically Controlled, Single-Arm Proof-of-Concept Trial in Guinea

Background Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a highly lethal condition for which no specific treatment has proven efficacy. In September 2014, while the Ebola outbreak was at its peak, the World Health Organization released a short list of drugs suitable for EVD research. Favipiravir, an antiviral developed for the treatment of severe influenza, was one of these. In late 2014, the ...

Mortality, Morbidity, and Developmental Outcomes in Infants Born to Women Who Received Either Mefloquine or Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine as Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy: A Cohort Study

Background Little is known about the effects of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) on the health of sub-Saharan African infants. We have evaluated the safety of IPTp with mefloquine (MQ) compared to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for important infant health and developmental outcomes. Methods and Findings In the context of a multicenter randomized ...

Estimated Effects of Different Alcohol Taxation and Price Policies on Health Inequalities: A Mathematical Modelling Study

Introduction While evidence that alcohol pricing policies reduce alcohol-related health harm is robust, and alcohol taxation increases are a WHO “best buy” intervention, there is a lack of research comparing the scale and distribution across society of health impacts arising from alternative tax and price policy options. The aim of this study is to test whether four common alcohol ...

A Time for Global Action: Addressing Girls’ Menstrual Hygiene Management Needs in Schools

Marni Sommer and colleagues reflect on priorities needed to guide global, national, and local action to address girls' menstrual hygiene management needs in schools.

Microenvironmental Heterogeneity Parallels Breast Cancer Progression: A Histology–Genomic Integration Analysis

Background The intra-tumor diversity of cancer cells is under intense investigation; however, little is known about the heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment that is key to cancer progression and evolution. We aimed to assess the degree of microenvironmental heterogeneity in breast cancer and correlate this with genomic and clinical parameters. Methods and Findings We ...

Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in China: Modeling Epidemic Dynamics of Enterovirus Serotypes and Implications for Vaccination

Background Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood illness caused by serotypes of the Enterovirus A species in the genus Enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family. The disease has had a substantial burden throughout East and Southeast Asia over the past 15 y. China reported 9 million cases of HFMD between 2008 and 2013, with the two serotypes Enterovirus A71 ...

When Children Become Adults: Should Biobanks Re-Contact?

Noor Giesbertz and colleagues consider different re-contact policy designs that could be used by biobanks to obtain permission for the continued use of samples collected from children.

The Health Care Consequences Of Australian Immigration Policies

Deborah Zion and colleagues discuss the “dual loyalty” conflict affecting Australian health care providers involved in the care of asylum seekers.

The Future of Diabetes Prevention: A Call for Papers

PLOS Medicine editors and guest editors announce a call for papers for submissions for a special issue on diabetes prevention.