Epigenetics & Chromatin

http://www.epigeneticsandchromatin.com/

List of Papers (Total 483)

Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 is associated with shelterin complex at interstitial telomeric sites

Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (UCHL1) is primarily expressed in neuronal cells and neuroendocrine cells and has been associated with various diseases, including many cancers. It is a multifunctional protein involved in deubiquitination, ubiquitination and ubiquitin homeostasis, but its specific roles are disputed and still generally undetermined. Herein, we demonstrate ...

Phylogenetic analysis of the core histone doublet and DNA topo II genes of Marseilleviridae: evidence of proto-eukaryotic provenance

While the genomes of eukaryotes and Archaea both encode the histone-fold domain, only eukaryotes encode the core histone paralogs H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. With DNA, these core histones assemble into the nucleosomal octamer underlying eukaryotic chromatin. Importantly, core histones for H2A and H3 are maintained as neofunctionalized paralogs adapted for general bulk chromatin ...

Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 is associated with shelterin complex at interstitial telomeric sites

Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (UCHL1) is primarily expressed in neuronal cells and neuroendocrine cells and has been associated with various diseases, including many cancers. It is a multifunctional protein involved in deubiquitination, ubiquitination and ubiquitin homeostasis, but its specific roles are disputed and still generally undetermined. Herein, we demonstrate ...

Phylogenetic analysis of the core histone doublet and DNA topo II genes of Marseilleviridae: evidence of proto-eukaryotic provenance

While the genomes of eukaryotes and Archaea both encode the histone-fold domain, only eukaryotes encode the core histone paralogs H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. With DNA, these core histones assemble into the nucleosomal octamer underlying eukaryotic chromatin. Importantly, core histones for H2A and H3 are maintained as neofunctionalized paralogs adapted for general bulk chromatin ...

Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 is associated with shelterin complex at interstitial telomeric sites

Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (UCHL1) is primarily expressed in neuronal cells and neuroendocrine cells and has been associated with various diseases, including many cancers. It is a multifunctional protein involved in deubiquitination, ubiquitination and ubiquitin homeostasis, but its specific roles are disputed and still generally undetermined. Herein, we demonstrate ...

Phylogenetic analysis of the core histone doublet and DNA topo II genes of Marseilleviridae: evidence of proto-eukaryotic provenance

While the genomes of eukaryotes and Archaea both encode the histone-fold domain, only eukaryotes encode the core histone paralogs H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. With DNA, these core histones assemble into the nucleosomal octamer underlying eukaryotic chromatin. Importantly, core histones for H2A and H3 are maintained as neofunctionalized paralogs adapted for general bulk chromatin ...

Chromatin organization changes during the establishment and maintenance of the postmitotic state

Genome organization changes during development as cells differentiate. Chromatin motion becomes increasingly constrained and heterochromatin clusters as cells become restricted in their developmental potential. These changes coincide with slowing of the cell cycle, which can also influence chromatin organization and dynamics. Terminal differentiation is often coupled with permanent ...

NuA4 histone acetyltransferase activity is required for H4 acetylation on a dosage-compensated monosomic chromosome that confers resistance to fungal toxins

The major human fungal pathogen Candida albicans possesses a diploid genome, but responds to growth in challenging environments by employing chromosome aneuploidy as an adaptation mechanism. For example, we have shown that C. albicans adapts to growth on the toxic sugar l-sorbose by transitioning to a state in which one chromosome (chromosome 5, Ch5) becomes monosomic. Moreover, ...

Neuroepigenetic mechanisms in disease

Epigenetics allows for the inheritance of information in cellular lineages during differentiation, independent of changes to the underlying genetic sequence. This raises the question of whether epigenetic mechanisms also function in post-mitotic neurons. During the long life of the neuron, fluctuations in gene expression allow the cell to pass through stages of differentiation, ...

Application of dual reading domains as novel reagents in chromatin biology reveals a new H3K9me3 and H3K36me2/3 bivalent chromatin state

Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) play central roles in chromatin-templated processes. Combinations of two or more histone PTMs form unique interfaces for readout and recruitment of chromatin interacting complexes, but the genome-wide mapping of coexisting histone PTMs remains an experimentally difficult task. We introduce here a novel type of affinity reagents ...

Hypomethylated domain-enriched DNA motifs prepattern the accessible nucleosome organization in teleosts

Gene promoters in vertebrate genomes show distinct chromatin features such as stably positioned nucleosome array and DNA hypomethylation. The nucleosomes are known to have certain sequence preferences, and the prediction of nucleosome positioning from DNA sequence has been successful in some organisms such as yeast. However, at gene promoters where nucleosomes are much more stably ...

Optimized reduced representation bisulfite sequencing reveals tissue-specific mCHH islands in maize

DNA methylation plays important roles in many regulatory processes in plants. It is economically infeasible to profile genome-wide DNA methylation at a single-base resolution in maize, given its genome size of ~2.5 Gb. As an alternative, we adapted region of interest (ROI)-directed reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) to survey genome-wide methylation in maize. We ...

Long noncoding RNAs coordinate functions between mitochondria and the nucleus

In animal cells, mitochondria are the primary powerhouses and metabolic factories. They also contain genomes and can produce mitochondrial-specific nucleic acids and proteins. To maintain homeostasis of the entire cell, an intense cross-talk between mitochondria and the nucleus, mediated by encoded noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), as well as proteins, is required. Long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) ...

Initial high-resolution microscopic mapping of active and inactive regulatory sequences proves non-random 3D arrangements in chromatin domain clusters

The association of active transcription regulatory elements (TREs) with DNAse I hypersensitivity (DHS[+]) and an ‘open’ local chromatin configuration has long been known. However, the 3D topography of TREs within the nuclear landscape of individual cells in relation to their active or inactive status has remained elusive. Here, we explored the 3D nuclear topography of active and ...

Non-genomic transmission of longevity between generations: potential mechanisms and evidence across species

Accumulating animal and human data indicate that environmental exposures experienced during sensitive developmental periods may strongly influence risk of adult disease. Moreover, the effects triggered by developmental environmental cues can be transgenerationally transmitted, potentially affecting offspring health outcomes. Increasing evidence suggests a central role of epigenetic ...

In utero exposure to maternal smoking is associated with DNA methylation alterations and reduced neuronal content in the developing fetal brain

Background Intrauterine exposure to maternal smoking is linked to impaired executive function and behavioral problems in the offspring. Maternal smoking is associated with reduced fetal brain growth and smaller volume of cortical gray matter in childhood, indicating that prenatal exposure to tobacco may impact cortical development and manifest as behavioral problems. Cellular ...

Sex-specific chromatin landscapes in an ultra-compact chordate genome

Background In multicellular organisms, epigenome dynamics are associated with transitions in the cell cycle, development, germline specification, gametogenesis and inheritance. Evolutionarily, regulatory space has increased in complex metazoans to accommodate these functions. In tunicates, the sister lineage to vertebrates, we examine epigenome adaptations to strong secondary ...

MS_HistoneDB, a manually curated resource for proteomic analysis of human and mouse histones

Background Histones and histone variants are essential components of the nuclear chromatin. While mass spectrometry has opened a large window to their characterization and functional studies, their identification from proteomic data remains challenging. Indeed, the current interpretation of mass spectrometry data relies on public databases which are either not exhaustive ...

Genome-wide methylation data mirror ancestry information

Background Genetic data are known to harbor information about human demographics, and genotyping data are commonly used for capturing ancestry information by leveraging genome-wide differences between populations. In contrast, it is not clear to what extent population structure is captured by whole-genome DNA methylation data. Results We demonstrate, using three large-cohort 450K ...

The detailed 3D multi-loop aggregate/rosette chromatin architecture and functional dynamic organization of the human and mouse genomes

Background The dynamic three-dimensional chromatin architecture of genomes and its co-evolutionary connection to its function—the storage, expression, and replication of genetic information—is still one of the central issues in biology. Here, we describe the much debated 3D architecture of the human and mouse genomes from the nucleosomal to the megabase pair level by a novel ...

Dynamic properties of independent chromatin domains measured by correlation spectroscopy in living cells

Background Genome organization into subchromosomal topologically associating domains (TADs) is linked to cell-type-specific gene expression programs. However, dynamic properties of such domains remain elusive, and it is unclear how domain plasticity modulates genomic accessibility for soluble factors. Results Here, we combine and compare a high-resolution topology analysis of ...

“Gap hunting” to characterize clustered probe signals in Illumina methylation array data

Background The Illumina 450k array has been widely used in epigenetic association studies. Current quality-control (QC) pipelines typically remove certain sets of probes, such as those containing a SNP or with multiple mapping locations. An additional set of potentially problematic probes are those with DNA methylation distributions characterized by two or more distinct clusters ...