Epigenetics & Chromatin

http://www.epigeneticsandchromatin.com/

List of Papers (Total 471)

Neuroepigenetic mechanisms in disease

Epigenetics allows for the inheritance of information in cellular lineages during differentiation, independent of changes to the underlying genetic sequence. This raises the question of whether epigenetic mechanisms also function in post-mitotic neurons. During the long life of the neuron, fluctuations in gene expression allow the cell to pass through stages of differentiation, ...

Application of dual reading domains as novel reagents in chromatin biology reveals a new H3K9me3 and H3K36me2/3 bivalent chromatin state

Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) play central roles in chromatin-templated processes. Combinations of two or more histone PTMs form unique interfaces for readout and recruitment of chromatin interacting complexes, but the genome-wide mapping of coexisting histone PTMs remains an experimentally difficult task. We introduce here a novel type of affinity reagents ...

Optimized reduced representation bisulfite sequencing reveals tissue-specific mCHH islands in maize

DNA methylation plays important roles in many regulatory processes in plants. It is economically infeasible to profile genome-wide DNA methylation at a single-base resolution in maize, given its genome size of ~2.5 Gb. As an alternative, we adapted region of interest (ROI)-directed reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) to survey genome-wide methylation in maize. We ...

Long noncoding RNAs coordinate functions between mitochondria and the nucleus

In animal cells, mitochondria are the primary powerhouses and metabolic factories. They also contain genomes and can produce mitochondrial-specific nucleic acids and proteins. To maintain homeostasis of the entire cell, an intense cross-talk between mitochondria and the nucleus, mediated by encoded noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), as well as proteins, is required. Long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) ...

Initial high-resolution microscopic mapping of active and inactive regulatory sequences proves non-random 3D arrangements in chromatin domain clusters

The association of active transcription regulatory elements (TREs) with DNAse I hypersensitivity (DHS[+]) and an ‘open’ local chromatin configuration has long been known. However, the 3D topography of TREs within the nuclear landscape of individual cells in relation to their active or inactive status has remained elusive. Here, we explored the 3D nuclear topography of active and ...

Non-genomic transmission of longevity between generations: potential mechanisms and evidence across species

Accumulating animal and human data indicate that environmental exposures experienced during sensitive developmental periods may strongly influence risk of adult disease. Moreover, the effects triggered by developmental environmental cues can be transgenerationally transmitted, potentially affecting offspring health outcomes. Increasing evidence suggests a central role of epigenetic ...

In utero exposure to maternal smoking is associated with DNA methylation alterations and reduced neuronal content in the developing fetal brain

Background Intrauterine exposure to maternal smoking is linked to impaired executive function and behavioral problems in the offspring. Maternal smoking is associated with reduced fetal brain growth and smaller volume of cortical gray matter in childhood, indicating that prenatal exposure to tobacco may impact cortical development and manifest as behavioral problems. Cellular ...

Sex-specific chromatin landscapes in an ultra-compact chordate genome

Background In multicellular organisms, epigenome dynamics are associated with transitions in the cell cycle, development, germline specification, gametogenesis and inheritance. Evolutionarily, regulatory space has increased in complex metazoans to accommodate these functions. In tunicates, the sister lineage to vertebrates, we examine epigenome adaptations to strong secondary ...

MS_HistoneDB, a manually curated resource for proteomic analysis of human and mouse histones

Background Histones and histone variants are essential components of the nuclear chromatin. While mass spectrometry has opened a large window to their characterization and functional studies, their identification from proteomic data remains challenging. Indeed, the current interpretation of mass spectrometry data relies on public databases which are either not exhaustive ...

Genome-wide methylation data mirror ancestry information

Background Genetic data are known to harbor information about human demographics, and genotyping data are commonly used for capturing ancestry information by leveraging genome-wide differences between populations. In contrast, it is not clear to what extent population structure is captured by whole-genome DNA methylation data. Results We demonstrate, using three large-cohort 450K ...

The detailed 3D multi-loop aggregate/rosette chromatin architecture and functional dynamic organization of the human and mouse genomes

Background The dynamic three-dimensional chromatin architecture of genomes and its co-evolutionary connection to its function—the storage, expression, and replication of genetic information—is still one of the central issues in biology. Here, we describe the much debated 3D architecture of the human and mouse genomes from the nucleosomal to the megabase pair level by a novel ...

Dynamic properties of independent chromatin domains measured by correlation spectroscopy in living cells

Background Genome organization into subchromosomal topologically associating domains (TADs) is linked to cell-type-specific gene expression programs. However, dynamic properties of such domains remain elusive, and it is unclear how domain plasticity modulates genomic accessibility for soluble factors. Results Here, we combine and compare a high-resolution topology analysis of ...

“Gap hunting” to characterize clustered probe signals in Illumina methylation array data

Background The Illumina 450k array has been widely used in epigenetic association studies. Current quality-control (QC) pipelines typically remove certain sets of probes, such as those containing a SNP or with multiple mapping locations. An additional set of potentially problematic probes are those with DNA methylation distributions characterized by two or more distinct clusters ...

Targeted bisulfite sequencing of the dynamic DNA methylome

Background The ability to measure DNA methylation precisely and efficiently continues to drive our understanding of this modification in development and disease. Whole genome bisulfite sequencing has the advantage of theoretically capturing all cytosines in the genome at single-nucleotide resolution, but it has a number of significant practical drawbacks that become amplified with ...

HOXA repression is mediated by nucleoporin Nup93 assisted by its interactors Nup188 and Nup205

Background The nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates nuclear transport of RNA and proteins into and out of the nucleus. Certain nucleoporins have additional functions in chromatin organization and transcription regulation. Nup93 is a scaffold nucleoporin at the nuclear pore complex which is associated with human chromosomes 5, 7 and 16 and with the promoters of the HOXA gene as ...

Widespread recovery of methylation at gametic imprints in hypomethylated mouse stem cells following rescue with DNMT3A2

Background Imprinted loci are paradigms of epigenetic regulation and are associated with a number of genetic disorders in human. A key characteristic of imprints is the presence of a gametic differentially methylated region (gDMR). Previous studies have indicated that DNA methylation lost from gDMRs could not be restored by DNMT1, or the de novo enzymes DNMT3A or 3B in stem cells, ...

Protein kinase Msk1 physically and functionally interacts with the KMT2A/MLL1 methyltransferase complex and contributes to the regulation of multiple target genes

Background The KMT2A/MLL1 lysine methyltransferase complex is an epigenetic regulator of selected developmental genes, in part through the SET domain-catalysed methylation of H3K4. It is essential for normal embryonic development and haematopoiesis and frequently mutated in cancer. The catalytic properties and targeting of KMT2A/MLL1 depend on the proteins with which it complexes ...

Insights into long noncoding RNAs of naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and their potential association with cancer resistance

Background Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of ubiquitous noncoding RNAs and have been found to act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes, which dramatically altered our understanding of cancer. Naked mole rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber) is an exceptionally long-lived and cancer-resistant rodent; however, whether lncRNAs play roles in cancer resistance in this seductive ...

Identification of activated enhancers and linked transcription factors in breast, prostate, and kidney tumors by tracing enhancer networks using epigenetic traits

Background Although technological advances now allow increased tumor profiling, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms leading to the development of different cancers remains elusive. Our approach toward understanding the molecular events that lead to cancer is to characterize changes in transcriptional regulatory networks between normal and tumor tissue. Because enhancer ...

Systematic comparison of monoclonal versus polyclonal antibodies for mapping histone modifications by ChIP-seq

Background The robustness of ChIP-seq datasets is highly dependent upon the antibodies used. Currently, polyclonal antibodies are the standard despite several limitations: They are non-renewable, vary in performance between lots and need to be validated with each new lot. In contrast, monoclonal antibody lots are renewable and provide consistent performance. To increase ChIP-seq ...

Quantitative analysis of ChIP-seq data uncovers dynamic and sustained H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 modulation in cancer cells under hypoxia

Background A comprehensive assessment of the epigenetic dynamics in cancer cells is the key to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer and to improving cancer diagnostics, prognostics and treatment. By combining genome-wide ChIP-seq epigenomics and microarray transcriptomics, we studied the effects of oxygen deprivation and subsequent reoxygenation on histone 3 ...

Histone macroH2A1.2 promotes metabolic health and leanness by inhibiting adipogenesis

Background Obesity has tremendous impact on the health systems. Its epigenetic bases are unclear. MacroH2A1 is a variant of histone H2A, present in two alternatively exon-spliced isoforms macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2, regulating cell plasticity and proliferation, during pluripotency and tumorigenesis. Their role in adipose tissue plasticity is unknown. Results Here, we show evidence ...

Expression and epigenomic landscape of the sex chromosomes in mouse post-meiotic male germ cells

Background During meiosis, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced. The persistence of repressive chromatin marks on the sex chromatin after meiosis initially led to the assumption that XY gene silencing persists to some extent in spermatids. Considering the many reports of XY-linked genes expressed and needed in the post-meiotic phase of mouse spermatogenesis, it is ...

An H4K16 histone acetyltransferase mediates decondensation of the X chromosome in C. elegans males

Background In C. elegans, in order to equalize gene expression between the sexes and balance X and autosomal expression, two steps are believed to be required. First, an unknown mechanism is hypothesized to upregulate the X chromosome in both sexes. This mechanism balances the X to autosomal expression in males, but creates X overexpression in hermaphrodites. Therefore, to restore ...

High-throughput assessment of context-dependent effects of chromatin proteins

Background Chromatin proteins control gene activity in a concerted manner. We developed a high-throughput assay to study the effects of the local chromatin environment on the regulatory activity of a protein of interest. The assay combines a previously reported multiplexing strategy based on barcoded randomly integrated reporters with Gal4-mediated tethering. We applied the assay ...