Seminars in Immunopathology

http://link.springer.com/journal/281

List of Papers (Total 115)

The eye as a complement dysregulation hotspot

Complement turnover is tightly regulated throughout the human body in order to prevent over-activation and subsequent damage from inflammation. In the eye, low-level complement activation is maintained to provide immune tolerance in this immune privileged organ. Conversely, the complement system is suppressed in the cornea to protect it from continuous immunological insult. ...

Auxiliary activation of the complement system and its importance for the pathophysiology of clinical conditions

Activation and regulation of the cascade systems of the blood (the complement system, the coagulation/contact activation/kallikrein system, and the fibrinolytic system) occurs via activation of zymogen molecules to specific active proteolytic enzymes. Despite the fact that the generated proteases are all present together in the blood, under physiological conditions, the activity of ...

Structural and functional diversity of collectins and ficolins and their relationship to disease

Pattern recognition molecules are sensors for the innate immune system and trigger a number of pathophysiological functions after interaction with the corresponding ligands on microorganisms or altered mammalian cells. Of those pattern recognition molecules used by the complement system, collagen-like lectins (collectins) are an important subcomponent. Whereas the best known of ...

Complement as a regulator of adaptive immunity

The complement system is an ancient and evolutionarily conserved effector system comprising in mammals over 50 circulating and membrane bound proteins. Complement has long been described as belonging to the innate immune system; however, a number of recent studies have demonstrated its key role in the modulation of the adaptive immune response. This review does not set out to be an ...

Tolerance and immunity to pathogens in early life: insights from HBV infection

Immunity is not static but varies with age. The immune system of a newborn infant is not “defective” or “immature.” Rather, there are distinct features of innate and adaptive immunity from fetal life to adulthood, which may alter the susceptibility of newborn infants to infections compared to adults. Increased protection to certain infectious diseases during early life may benefit ...

Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility, severity, and treatment response

A decade after the first genome-wide association study in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a plethora of genetic association studies have been published on RA and its clinical or serological subtypes. We review the major milestones in the study of the genetic architecture of RA susceptibility, severity, and response to treatment. We set the scientific context necessary for ...

The meteorology of cytokine storms, and the clinical usefulness of this knowledge

The term cytokine storm has become a popular descriptor of the dramatic harmful consequences of the rapid release of polypeptide mediators, or cytokines, that generate inflammatory responses. This occurs throughout the body in both non-infectious and infectious disease states, including the central nervous system. In infectious disease it has become a useful concept through which ...

Future therapeutic targets in rheumatoid arthritis?

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by persistent joint inflammation. Without adequate treatment, patients with RA will develop joint deformity and progressive functional impairment. With the implementation of treat-to-target strategies and availability of biologic therapies, the outcomes for patients with RA have significantly improved. ...

Pre-symptomatic autoimmunity in rheumatoid arthritis: when does the disease start?

It is well recognised that a state of autoimmunity, in which immunological tolerance is broken, precedes the development of symptoms in the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). For individuals who will later develop seropositive disease, this manifests as autoantibodies directed against proteins that have undergone specific post-translational modifications. There is ...

TH9 cells in anti-tumor immunity

IL-9 was initially identified as a T cell growth factor with a potential oncogenic activity. Accordingly, IL-9 drives tumor growth in most hematological cancers. However, the links between IL-9 and cancer progression have been recently revisited following the discovery of TH9 cells. TH9 cells, which have been characterized in 2008 as a proinflammatory CD4 T cell subset that ...

Malignant inflammation in cutaneous T‐cell lymphoma—a hostile takeover

Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are characterized by the presence of chronically inflamed skin lesions containing malignant T cells. Early disease presents as limited skin patches or plaques and exhibits an indolent behavior. For many patients, the disease never progresses beyond this stage, but in approximately one third of patients, the disease becomes progressive, and the skin ...

The decidua—the maternal bed embracing the embryo—maintains the pregnancy

The decidua has been known as maternal uterine tissue, which plays essential roles in protecting the embryo from being attacked by maternal immune cells and provides nutritional support for the developing embryo prior to placenta formation. However, there are questions that still remain to be answered: (1) How does the decidua supply nutrition and provide a physical scaffold for ...

Dendritic cells in lung immunopathology

Dendritic cells (DCs) lie at the heart of the innate immune system, specialised at recognising danger signals in many forms including foreign material, infection or tissue damage and initiating powerful adaptive immune and inflammatory responses. In barrier sites such as the lung, the instrumental role that DCs play at the interface between the environment and the host places them ...

COPD immunopathology

The immunopathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is based on the innate and adaptive inflammatory immune responses to the chronic inhalation of cigarette smoking. In the last quarter of the century, the analysis of specimens obtained from the lower airways of COPD patients compared with those from a control group of age-matched smokers with normal lung function ...

Key mechanisms governing resolution of lung inflammation

Innate immunity normally provides excellent defence against invading microorganisms. Acute inflammation is a form of innate immune defence and represents one of the primary responses to injury, infection and irritation, largely mediated by granulocyte effector cells such as neutrophils and eosinophils. Failure to remove an inflammatory stimulus (often resulting in failed resolution ...

The IL-1 cytokine family and its role in inflammation and fibrosis in the lung

The IL-1 cytokine family comprises 11 members (7 ligands with agonist activity, 3 receptor antagonists and 1 anti-inflammatory cytokine) and is recognised as a key mediator of inflammation and fibrosis in multiple tissues including the lung. IL-1 targeted therapies have been successfully employed to treat a range of inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and gouty ...