Seminars in Immunopathology

http://link.springer.com/journal/281

List of Papers (Total 129)

Molecular interactions at the surface of extracellular vesicles

Extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, microvesicles, apoptotic bodies, and large oncosomes have been shown to participate in a wide variety of biological processes and are currently under intense investigation in many different fields of biomedicine. One of the key features of extracellular vesicles is that they have relatively large surface compared to their volume. Some...

A historical perspective on the role of sensory nerves in neurogenic inflammation

The term ‘neurogenic inflammation’ is commonly used, especially with respect to the role of sensory nerves within inflammatory disease. However, despite over a century of research, we remain unclear about the role of these nerves in the vascular biology of inflammation, as compared with their interacting role in pain processing and of their potential for therapeutic manipulation...

The role of extracellular vesicles when innate meets adaptive

Innate immune cells are recognized for their rapid and critical contribution to the body’s first line of defense against invading pathogens and harmful agents. These actions can be further amplified by specific adaptive immune responses adapted to the activating stimulus. Recently, the awareness has grown that virtually all innate immune cells, i.e., mast cells, neutrophils...

Diseases of complement dysregulation—an overview

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), C3 glomerulopathy (C3G), and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) are prototypical disorders of complement dysregulation. Although complement overactivation is common to all, cell surface alternative pathway dysregulation (aHUS), fluid phase alternative pathway dysregulation (C3G), or terminal pathway dysregulation (PNH...

Hemostasis, endothelial stress, inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome

Obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MS) are two of the pressing healthcare problems of our time. The MS is defined as increased abdominal obesity in concert with elevated fasting glucose levels, insulin resistance, elevated blood pressure, and plasma lipids. It is a key risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and for cardiovascular complications and mortality. Here, we...

Complement in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease

The emergence of complement as an important player in normal brain development and pathological remodelling has come as a major surprise to most scientists working in neuroscience and almost all those working in complement. That a system, evolved to protect the host against infection, should have these unanticipated roles has forced a rethink about what complement might be doing...

Recipe for IBD: can we use food to control inflammatory bowel disease?

The mucosal immune system and the microbiota in the intestinal tract have recently been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Both of these can be influenced by food. Thus, we propose dietary intervention as a therapeutic option for IBD. In this review, we discuss the interaction of the intestinal mucosal immune system and the...

Vaccine responses in newborns

Immunisation of the newborn represents a key global strategy in overcoming morbidity and mortality due to infection in early life. Potential limitations, however, include poor immunogenicity, safety concerns and the development of tolerogenicity or hypo-responsiveness to either the same antigen and/or concomitant antigens administered at birth or in the subsequent months...

The maternal microbiome during pregnancy and allergic disease in the offspring

There is substantial epidemiological and mechanistic evidence that the increase in allergic disease and asthma in many parts of the world in part relates to changes in microbial exposures and diet acting via the composition and metabolic products of the intestinal microbiome. The majority of research in this field has focused on the gut microbiome during infancy, but it is...

Monocyte and macrophage immunometabolism in atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is characterized by chronic low grade inflammation of arteries that results in the development of lipid dense plaques. Chronic inflammation induced by Western-type diet is associated with the risk of developing atherosclerosis, and new insights shed light on the importance of metabolic and functional reprogramming in monocytes and macrophages for progression of...

The eye as a complement dysregulation hotspot

Complement turnover is tightly regulated throughout the human body in order to prevent over-activation and subsequent damage from inflammation. In the eye, low-level complement activation is maintained to provide immune tolerance in this immune privileged organ. Conversely, the complement system is suppressed in the cornea to protect it from continuous immunological insult. Over...

Auxiliary activation of the complement system and its importance for the pathophysiology of clinical conditions

Activation and regulation of the cascade systems of the blood (the complement system, the coagulation/contact activation/kallikrein system, and the fibrinolytic system) occurs via activation of zymogen molecules to specific active proteolytic enzymes. Despite the fact that the generated proteases are all present together in the blood, under physiological conditions, the activity...

Structural and functional diversity of collectins and ficolins and their relationship to disease

Pattern recognition molecules are sensors for the innate immune system and trigger a number of pathophysiological functions after interaction with the corresponding ligands on microorganisms or altered mammalian cells. Of those pattern recognition molecules used by the complement system, collagen-like lectins (collectins) are an important subcomponent. Whereas the best known of...

Complement as a regulator of adaptive immunity

The complement system is an ancient and evolutionarily conserved effector system comprising in mammals over 50 circulating and membrane bound proteins. Complement has long been described as belonging to the innate immune system; however, a number of recent studies have demonstrated its key role in the modulation of the adaptive immune response. This review does not set out to be...

Tolerance and immunity to pathogens in early life: insights from HBV infection

Immunity is not static but varies with age. The immune system of a newborn infant is not “defective” or “immature.” Rather, there are distinct features of innate and adaptive immunity from fetal life to adulthood, which may alter the susceptibility of newborn infants to infections compared to adults. Increased protection to certain infectious diseases during early life may...

Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility, severity, and treatment response

A decade after the first genome-wide association study in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a plethora of genetic association studies have been published on RA and its clinical or serological subtypes. We review the major milestones in the study of the genetic architecture of RA susceptibility, severity, and response to treatment. We set the scientific context necessary for non...

The role of autoantibodies in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by joint inflammation. The presence of autoantibodies in the sera of RA patients has provided many clues to the underlying disease pathophysiology. Based on the presence of several autoantibodies like rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti...

The meteorology of cytokine storms, and the clinical usefulness of this knowledge

The term cytokine storm has become a popular descriptor of the dramatic harmful consequences of the rapid release of polypeptide mediators, or cytokines, that generate inflammatory responses. This occurs throughout the body in both non-infectious and infectious disease states, including the central nervous system. In infectious disease it has become a useful concept through which...

Future therapeutic targets in rheumatoid arthritis?

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by persistent joint inflammation. Without adequate treatment, patients with RA will develop joint deformity and progressive functional impairment. With the implementation of treat-to-target strategies and availability of biologic therapies, the outcomes for patients with RA have significantly improved...

Pre-symptomatic autoimmunity in rheumatoid arthritis: when does the disease start?

It is well recognised that a state of autoimmunity, in which immunological tolerance is broken, precedes the development of symptoms in the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). For individuals who will later develop seropositive disease, this manifests as autoantibodies directed against proteins that have undergone specific post-translational modifications. There...