JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute


List of Papers (Total 3,016)

The Intestinal Microbiome and Estrogen Receptor–Positive Female Breast Cancer

The huge communities of residential microbes, including bacteria, viruses, Archaea, and Eukaryotes, that colonize humans are increasingly recognized as playing important roles in health and disease. A complex populous ecosystem, the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors up to 1011 bacterial cells per gram of luminal content, whose collective genome, the gut metagenome...

Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes, Crohn’s-Like Lymphoid Reaction, and Survival From Colorectal Cancer

Background: While clinical outcomes from colorectal cancer (CRC) are influenced by stage at diagnosis and treatment, mounting evidence suggests that an enhanced lymphocytic reaction to a tumor may also be an informative prognostic indicator.

miR-141-Mediated Regulation of Brain Metastasis From Breast Cancer

Background: Brain metastasis poses a major treatment challenge and remains an unmet clinical need. Finding novel therapies to prevent and treat brain metastases requires an understanding of the biology and molecular basis of the process, which currently is constrained by a dearth of experimental models and specific therapeutic targets.

Impact of Early Breast Cancer Screening on Mortality Among Young Survivors of Childhood Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Female survivors treated with thoracic radiation therapy (RT) for childhood cancer experience increased risks of breast cancer (BC). There are currently no data quantifying the potential mortality gains of early BC screening among such survivors.

Antitumor Activity of BRAF Inhibitor and IFNα Combination in BRAF-Mutant Melanoma

BRAF V600E -mediated MAPK pathway activation is associated in melanoma cells with IFNAR1 downregulation. IFNAR1 regulates melanoma cell sensitivity to IFNα, a cytokine used for the adjuvant treatment of melanoma. These findings and the limited therapeutic efficacy of BRAF-I prompted us to examine whether the efficacy of IFNα therapy of BRAF V600E melanoma can be increased by its...

Prostate Cancer Susceptibility in Men of African Ancestry at 8q24

The 8q24 region harbors multiple risk variants for distinct cancers, including >8 for prostate cancer. In this study, we conducted fine mapping of the 8q24 risk region (127.8–128.8Mb) in search of novel associations with common and rare variation in 4853 prostate cancer case patients and 4678 control subjects of African ancestry. All statistical tests were two-sided. We...

Making a Difference: Distinguishing Two Primaries From Metastasis in Synchronous Tumors of the Ovary and Uterus

For women with early-stage ovarian or endometrial cancers, prognosis is very good, with overall survival for both sites between 80% and 90%. This stands in stark contrast to metastatic disease (advanced stage), where the overall survival is less than 15%. We have long recognized that subtypes of disease also inform these statistics, with high-grade serous carcinomas conferring a...

Synchronous Endometrial and Ovarian Carcinomas: Evidence of Clonality

Many women with ovarian endometrioid carcinoma present with concurrent endometrial carcinoma. Organ-confined and low-grade synchronous endometrial and ovarian tumors (SEOs) clinically behave as independent primary tumors rather than a single advanced-stage carcinoma. We used 18 SEOs to investigate the ancestral relationship between the endometrial and ovarian components. Based on...

HPV Involvement in Head and Neck Cancers: Comprehensive Assessment of Biomarkers in 3680 Patients

We conducted a large international study to estimate fractions of head and neck cancers (HNCs) attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV-AFs) using six HPV-related biomarkers of viral detection, transcription, and cellular transformation.

Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Abrogation of Oxaliplatin Activity by Cetuximab in Colorectal Cancer

The antibody cetuximab, targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is used to treat metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Clinical trials suggest reduced benefit from the combination of cetuximab with oxaliplatin. The aim of this study was to investigate potential negative interactions between cetuximab and oxaliplatin.

An Ethical Framework for Allocating Scarce Life-Saving Chemotherapy and Supportive Care Drugs for Childhood Cancer

Shortages of life-saving chemotherapy and supportive care agents for children with cancer are frequent. These shortages directly affect patients’ lives, compromise both standard of care therapies and clinical research, and create substantial ethical challenges. Efforts to prevent drug shortages have yet to gain traction, and existing prioritization frameworks lack concrete...