JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute

https://academic.oup.com/jnci

List of Papers (Total 3,016)

Effect of Antioxidants on Androgen-Induced AP-1 and NF-κB DNA-Binding Activity in Prostate Carcinoma Cells

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that male hormones (androgens) and certain forms of oxygen (reactive oxygen species) are linked to the development of prostate cancer. We hypothesized that androgens contribute to prostate carcinogenesis by increasing oxidative stress. We further hypothesized that antioxidants reduce prostate cancer risk by modulating androgen effects...

Frequent Microsatellite Instability and Mismatch Repair Gene Mutations in Young Chinese Patients With Colorectal Cancer

BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer in persons under 46 years of age is substantially higher in Hong Kong than in Scotland and many other countries. Consequently, we examined whether there is a hereditary predisposition for colorectal cancer in this Southern Chinese population. METHODS: We investigated the incidence of microsatellite instability (MSI) at 10 DNA sites...

Expression of p73 and Its Relation to Histopathology and Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

BACKGROUND: The protein p73, the first identified homologue of the tumor suppressor gene p53 (also known as TP53), has been shown to induce apoptosis (programmed cell death), but its function in tumor development has not been established. This study was undertaken to investigate the expression of p73 in liver tissue of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to determine...

Detection and Clinical Importance of Micrometastatic Disease

Metastatic relapse in patients with solid tumors is caused by systemic preoperative or perioperative dissemination of tumor cells. The presence of individual tumor cells in bone marrow and in peripheral blood can be detected by immunologic or molecular methods and is being regarded increasingly as a clinically relevant prognostic factor. Because the goal of adjuvant therapy is...

Expression of Retinoid Receptor Genes and Proteins in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

BACKGROUND: Retinoids can suppress carcinogenesis in high-risk non-neoplastic bronchial lesions and can reduce the risk of second primary non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The effects of retinoids are mediated by nuclear receptors, i.e., the retinoic acid receptors (RARα, RARβ, and RARγ) and the retinoid X receptors (RXRα, RXRβ, and RXRγ). We investigated whether abnormalities...

Cancer Surveillance Series: Interpreting Trends in Prostate Cancer—Part III: Quantifying the Link Between Population Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing and Recent Declines in Prostate Cancer Mortality

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the circumstances under which dissemination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, beginning in 1988, could plausibly explain the declines in prostate cancer mortality observed from 1992 through 1994. METHODS: We developed a computer simulation model by use of information on population-based PSA testing patterns...

Incremental Costs of Enrolling Cancer Patients in Clinical Trials: a Population-Based Study

BACKGROUND: Payment for care provided as part of clinical research has become less predictable as a result of managed care. Because little is known at present about how entry into cancer trials affects the cost of care for cancer patients, we conducted a matched case-control comparison of the incremental medical costs attributable to participation in cancer treatment trials...

Nasopharyngeal Brush Biopsies and Detection of Nasopharyngeal Cancer in a High-Risk Population

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an important tumor in many countries. Ethnic and regional factors strongly influence disease risk. NPC is usually diagnosed late in disease development, and 10-year survival rates are as low as 10%. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a possibly causative agent, is present in all cells of essentially all undifferentiated NPCs. We wished to...