EcoHealth

http://link.springer.com/journal/10393

List of Papers (Total 176)

Implications of Tourist–Macaque Interactions for Disease Transmission

During wildlife tourism, proximity or actual contact between people and animals may lead to a significant risk of anthropozoonotic disease transmission. In this paper, we use social network analysis, disease simulation modelling and data on animal health and behaviour to investigate such risks at a site in Morocco, where tourists come to see wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). ...

Plant Phenology Supports the Multi-emergence Hypothesis for Ebola Spillover Events

Ebola virus disease outbreaks in animals (including humans and great apes) start with sporadic host switches from unknown reservoir species. The factors leading to such spillover events are little explored. Filoviridae viruses have a wide range of natural hosts and are unstable once outside hosts. Spillover events, which involve the physical transfer of viral particles across ...

A Qualitative Stakeholder Analysis of Avian Influenza Policy in Bangladesh

Avian influenza is a major animal and public health concern in Bangladesh. A decade after development and implementation of the first national avian influenza and human pandemic influenza preparedness and response plan in Bangladesh, a two-stage qualitative stakeholder analysis was performed in relation to the policy development process and the actual policy. This study ...

What’s New?

Burrow Dusting or Oral Vaccination Prevents Plague-Associated Prairie Dog Colony Collapse

Plague impacts prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) and other sensitive wildlife species. We compared efficacy of prophylactic treatments (burrow dusting with deltamethrin or oral vaccination with recombinant “sylvatic plague vaccine” [RCN-F1/V307]) to placebo treatment in black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) colonies. Between ...

Sylvatic Plague Vaccine Partially Protects Prairie Dogs (Cynomys spp.) in Field Trials

Sylvatic plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, frequently afflicts prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), causing population declines and local extirpations. We tested the effectiveness of bait-delivered sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) in prairie dog colonies on 29 paired placebo and treatment plots (1–59 ha in size; average 16.9 ha) in 7 western states from 2013 to 2015. We compared relative ...

Are Poultry or Wild Birds the Main Reservoirs for Avian Influenza in Bangladesh?

Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are of great socioeconomic and health concern, notably in Southeast Asia where highly pathogenic strains, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and other H5 and H7 AIVs, continue to occur. Wild bird migrants are often implicated in the maintenance and spread of AIV. However, little systematic surveillance of wild birds has been ...

An Integrative Eco-Epidemiological Analysis of West Nile Virus Transmission

West Nile disease, caused by the West Nile virus (WNV), is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease affecting humans and horses that involves wild birds as amplifying hosts. The mechanisms of WNV transmission remain unclear in Europe where the occurrence of outbreaks has dramatically increased in recent years. We used a dataset on the competence, distribution, abundance, diversity and ...

Estimating Loss of Brucella Abortus Antibodies from Age-Specific Serological Data In Elk

Serological data are one of the primary sources of information for disease monitoring in wildlife. However, the duration of the seropositive status of exposed individuals is almost always unknown for many free-ranging host species. Directly estimating rates of antibody loss typically requires difficult longitudinal sampling of individuals following seroconversion. Instead, we ...

Phylogenetic Insight into Zika and Emerging Viruses for a Perspective on Potential Hosts

Global viral diversity is substantial, but viruses that contribute little to the public health burden or to agricultural damage receive minimal attention until a seemingly unimportant virus becomes a threat. The Zika virus (ZIKV) illustrated this, as there was limited information and awareness of the virus when it was identified as a public health emergency in February 2016. ...

Retrospective Study of Leptospirosis in Malaysia

Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease transmitted to humans and animals by direct or indirect contact with urine or body fluids from infected animals especially rodents. Infection can be associated with wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe multi-organ syndrome with life-threatening consequences. We conducted a review of published studies on incidences, case ...

A Review of Zoonotic Infection Risks Associated with the Wild Meat Trade in Malaysia

The overhunting of wildlife for food and commercial gain presents a major threat to biodiversity in tropical forests and poses health risks to humans from contact with wild animals. Using a recent survey of wildlife offered at wild meat markets in Malaysia as a basis, we review the literature to determine the potential zoonotic infection risks from hunting, butchering and consuming ...

Summarizing US Wildlife Trade with an Eye Toward Assessing the Risk of Infectious Disease Introduction

The aim of this study was to characterize the role of the USA in the global exchange of wildlife and describe high volume trade with an eye toward prioritizing health risk assessment questions for further analysis. Here we summarize nearly 14 years (2000–2013) of the most comprehensive data available (USFWS LEMIS system), involving 11 billion individual specimens and an additional ...

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Toxoplasmosis in Middle Java, Indonesia

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Risk factors include consumption of undercooked meat, raw vegetables, and unfiltered water. This study aims to determine the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of toxoplasmosis in Middle Java, Indonesia, using an EcoHealth approach, combined with geographic information system (GIS). A total of 630 participants were ...

Public Health Benefits from Livestock Rift Valley Fever Control: A Simulation of Two Epidemics in Kenya

In controlling Rift Valley fever, public health sector optimises health benefits by considering cost-effective control options. We modelled cost-effectiveness of livestock RVF control from a public health perspective in Kenya. Analysis was limited to pastoral and agro-pastoral system high-risk areas, for a 10-year period incorporating two epidemics: 2006/2007 and a hypothetical one ...

Habitat Management to Reduce Human Exposure to Trypanosoma cruzi and Western Conenose Bugs (Triatoma protracta)

Chagas disease, which manifests as cardiomyopathy and severe gastrointestinal dysfunction, is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, a vector-borne parasite. In California, the vector Triatoma protracta frequently colonizes woodrat (Neotoma spp.) lodges, but may also invade nearby residences, feeding upon humans and creating the dual risk of bite-induced anaphylaxis and T. cruzi ...