Brain Structure and Function

http://link.springer.com/journal/429

List of Papers (Total 292)

Laterality of anterior temporal lobe repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation determines the degree of disruption in picture naming

The bilateral anterior temporal lobes play a key role in semantic representation. This is clearly demonstrated by the performance of patients with semantic dementia, a disorder characterised by a progressive and selective decline in semantic memory over all modalities as a result of anterior temporal atrophy. Although all patients exhibit a progressive decline in both single-word ...

Cortical morphology of the pars opercularis and its relationship to motor-inhibitory performance in a longitudinal, developing cohort

This study investigates the relationship between variability in cortical surface area and thickness of the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus and motor-inhibitory performance on a stop-signal task in a longitudinal, typically developing cohort of children and adolescents. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate the hypotheses that (1) cortical thinning and ...

Shifted dynamic interactions between subcortical nuclei and inferior frontal gyri during response preparation in persistent developmental stuttering

Persistent developmental stuttering is associated with basal ganglia dysfunction or dopamine dysregulation. Here, we studied whole-brain functional connectivity to test how basal ganglia structures coordinate and reorganize sensorimotor brain networks in stuttering. To this end, adults who stutter and fluent speakers (control participants) performed a response anticipation paradigm ...

Volume electron microscopy of the distribution of synapses in the neuropil of the juvenile rat somatosensory cortex

Knowing the proportions of asymmetric (excitatory) and symmetric (inhibitory) synapses in the neuropil is critical for understanding the design of cortical circuits. We used focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) to obtain stacks of serial sections from the six layers of the juvenile rat (postnatal day 14) somatosensory cortex (hindlimb representation). ...

Functional neuroimaging of visuo-vestibular interaction

The brain combines visual, vestibular and proprioceptive information to distinguish between self- and world motion. Often these signals are complementary and indicate that the individual is moving or stationary with respect to the surroundings. However, conflicting visual motion and vestibular cues can lead to ambiguous or false sensations of motion. In this study, we used ...

Distinct cortical and sub-cortical neurogenic domains for GABAergic interneuron precursor transcription factors NKX2.1, OLIG2 and COUP-TFII in early fetal human telencephalon

The extent of similarities and differences between cortical GABAergic interneuron generation in rodent and primate telencephalon remains contentious. We examined expression of three interneuron precursor transcription factors, alongside other markers, using immunohistochemistry on 8–12 post-conceptional weeks (PCW) human telencephalon sections. NKX2.1, OLIG2, and COUP-TFII ...

Semaphorin3A–neuropilin1 signalling is involved in the generation of cortical interneurons

Cortical interneurons are generated predominantly in the medial ganglionic eminence of the ventral telencephalon and migrate to the cortex during embryonic development. These cells express neuropilin (Nrp1 and Nrp2) receptors which mediate their response to the chemorepulsive class 3 semaphorin (Sema) ligands. We show here that semaphorins Sema3A and Sema3F are expressed in layers ...

Gradients of connectivity distance are anchored in primary cortex

Connectivity between distant cortical areas is a valuable, yet costly feature of cortical organization and is predominantly found between regions of heteromodal association cortex. The recently proposed ‘tethering hypothesis’ describes the emergence of long-distance connections in association cortex as a function of their spatial separation from primary cortical regions. Here, we ...

In vivo visualization of the locus coeruleus in humans: quantifying the test–retest reliability

The locus coeruleus (LC) is a brainstem nucleus involved in important cognitive functions. Recent developments in neuroimaging methods and scanning protocols have made it possible to visualize the human LC in vivo by utilizing a T1-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) scan. Despite its frequent use and its application as a biomarker for tracking the progress of monoaminergic-related ...

Increased glutamic acid decarboxylase expression in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus in depression

In depression, disrupted circadian rhythms reflect abnormalities in the central circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Although many SCN neurons are said to be GABAergic, it was not yet known whether and how SCN GABA changes occur in the SCN in depression. We, therefore, studied GABA in the SCN in relation to the changes in arginine vasopressin (AVP), ...

A latent measure explains substantial variance in white matter microstructure across the newborn human brain

A latent measure of white matter microstructure (g WM) provides a neural basis for information processing speed and intelligence in adults, but the temporal emergence of g WM during human development is unknown. We provide evidence that substantial variance in white matter microstructure is shared across a range of major tracts in the newborn brain. Based on diffusion MRI scans ...

Large-scale functional neural network correlates of response inhibition: an fMRI meta-analysis

An influential hypothesis from the last decade proposed that regions within the right inferior frontal cortex of the human brain were dedicated to supporting response inhibition. There is growing evidence, however, to support an alternative model, which proposes that neural areas associated with specific inhibitory control tasks co-exist as common network mechanisms, supporting ...

Nuclear derivatives and axonal projections originating from rhombomere 4 in the mouse hindbrain

The r4-derived territory is located in the pontine region of the brainstem, forming a wedge-shaped slice that broadens from the choroidal roof to the ventral midline. R4-derived neuronal populations migrate radially inside and tangentially outside this rhombomere, forming nuclei of the sensorimotor auditory, vestibular, trigeminal and reticular systems. R4-derived fibre tracts ...

Differential surface density and modulatory effects of presynaptic GABAB receptors in hippocampal cholecystokinin and parvalbumin basket cells

The perisomatic domain of cortical neurons is under the control of two major GABAergic inhibitory interneuron types: regular-spiking cholecystokinin (CCK) basket cells (BCs) and fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) BCs. CCK and PV BCs are different not only in their intrinsic physiological, anatomical and molecular characteristics, but also in their presynaptic modulation of their ...

The neurons expressing calcium-binding proteins in the amygdala of the guinea pig: precisely designed interface for sex hormones

The generation of emotional responses by the amygdala is determined largely by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to its principal neurons. These responses are often sex-specific, and any imbalance in excitatory and/or inhibitory tones leads to serious psychiatric disorders which occur with different rates in men versus women. To investigate the neural basis of ...

The integrity of the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract is essential for the normal functioning of the olfactory system

The nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract (nLOT) is a relatively small component of the cortical pallial amygdala, with peculiar neurogenic, neurochemical and connectivity patterns. Although it has been suggested that it might be involved in non-pheromonal olfactory-guided behaviors, particularly feeding, the functional implications of the nLOT have never been investigated. In ...

Risk and protective factors for structural brain ageing in the eighth decade of life

Individuals differ markedly in brain structure, and in how this structure degenerates during ageing. In a large sample of human participants (baseline n = 731 at age 73 years; follow-up n = 488 at age 76 years), we estimated the magnitude of mean change and variability in changes in MRI measures of brain macrostructure (grey matter, white matter, and white matter hyperintensity ...

Healthy cortical development through adolescence and early adulthood

Adolescence is a period of significant brain changes; however, the effects of age and sex on cortical development are yet to be fully characterized. Here, we utilized innovative intrinsic curvature (IC) analysis, along with the traditional cortical measures [cortical thickness (CT), local gyrification index (LGI), and surface area (SA)], to investigate how these indices (1) relate ...

The number and distribution of AMPA receptor channels containing fast kinetic GluA3 and GluA4 subunits at auditory nerve synapses depend on the target cells

The neurotransmitter receptor subtype, number, density, and distribution relative to the location of transmitter release sites are key determinants of signal transmission. AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs) containing GluA3 and GluA4 subunits are prominently expressed in subsets of neurons capable of firing action potentials at high frequencies, such as auditory ...

A neuronal activation correlate in striatum and prefrontal cortex of prolonged cocaine intake

Maladaptive changes in the involvement of striatal and frontal cortical regions in drug use are thought to underlie the progression to habitual drug use and loss of cognitive control over drug intake that occur with accumulating drug experience. The present experiments focus on changes in neuronal activity in these regions associated with short-term (10 days) and long-term (60 ...

Addressing sufficiency of the CB1 receptor for endocannabinoid-mediated functions through conditional genetic rescue in forebrain GABAergic neurons

Genetic inactivation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor gene in different cell types in the brain has previously revealed necessary functions for distinct synaptic plasticity processes and behaviors. Here, we sought to identify CB1 receptor expression sites that are minimally required to reconstruct normal phenotypes. In a CB1-null background, we re-expressed endogenous CB1 receptors ...

Distinct gamma oscillations in the distal dendritic fields of the dentate gyrus and the CA1 area of mouse hippocampus

The molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and the anatomically adjacent stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA1 area, represent afferent areas at distinct levels of the hippocampal trisynaptic loop. Afferents to the dentate gyrus and CA1 area originate from different cell populations, including projection cells in entorhinal cortex layers two and three, respectively. To determine the ...