Brain Structure and Function

http://link.springer.com/journal/429

List of Papers (Total 303)

A three-dimensional stereotaxic atlas of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) brain

The gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) is a small marsupial gaining recognition as a laboratory animal in biomedical research. Despite numerous studies on opossum neuroanatomy, a consistent and comprehensive neuroanatomical reference for this species is still missing. Here we present the first three-dimensional, multimodal atlas of the Monodelphis opossum brain. It ...

Modulation of thalamocortical oscillations by TRIP8b, an auxiliary subunit for HCN channels

Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels have important functions in controlling neuronal excitability and generating rhythmic oscillatory activity. The role of tetratricopeptide repeat-containing Rab8b-interacting protein (TRIP8b) in regulation of hyperpolarization-activated inward current, I h, in the thalamocortical system and its functional ...

Hippocampal–caudate nucleus interactions support exceptional memory performance

Participants of the annual World Memory Championships regularly demonstrate extraordinary memory feats, such as memorising the order of 52 playing cards in 20 s or 1000 binary digits in 5 min. On a cognitive level, memory athletes use well-known mnemonic strategies, such as the method of loci. However, whether these feats are enabled solely through the use of mnemonic strategies or ...

Acute inhibition of estradiol synthesis impacts vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation and cerebellar long-term potentiation in male rats

The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) adaptation is an ideal model for investigating how the neurosteroid 17 beta-estradiol (E2) contributes to the modification of behavior by regulating synaptic activities. We hypothesized that E2 impacts VOR adaptation by affecting cerebellar synaptic plasticity at the parallel fiber–Purkinje cell (PF) synapse. To verify this hypothesis, we ...

When three is greater than five: EEG and fMRI signatures of errors in numerical and physical comparisons

Unravelling the neural mechanisms, which determine performance accuracy, is one of the key concepts in cognitive neuroscience. When compared to correct responses, shorter reaction times are commonly observed behavioural feature of errors committed in typical conflict tasks. Yet, little is known about the origins of this phenomenon. In this study, EEG and fMRI experiments were ...

Brain cortical characteristics of lifetime cognitive ageing

Regional cortical brain volume is the product of surface area and thickness. These measures exhibit partially distinct trajectories of change across the brain’s cortex in older age, but it is unclear which cortical characteristics at which loci are sensitive to cognitive ageing differences. We examine associations between change in intelligence from age 11 to 73 years and regional ...

Robust age, but limited sex, differences in mu-opioid receptors in the rat brain: relevance for reward and drug-seeking behaviors in juveniles

In the brain, the µ-opioid receptor (MOR) is involved in reward-seeking behaviors and plays a pivotal role in the mediation of opioid use disorders. Furthermore, reward-seeking behaviors and susceptibility to opioid addiction are particularly evident during the juvenile period, with a higher incidence of opioid use in males and higher sensitivity to opioids in females. Despite ...

Computational neuroanatomy of human stratum proprium of interparietal sulcus

Recent advances in diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI) and tractography have enabled identification of major long-range white matter tracts in the human brain. Yet, our understanding of shorter tracts, such as those within the parietal lobe, remains limited. Over a century ago, a tract connecting the superior and inferior parts of the parietal cortex was identified in a post-mortem ...

Glucocerebrosidase expression patterns in the non-human primate brain

Glucocerebrosidase (GCase) is a lysosomal enzyme encoded by the GBA1 gene. Mutations in GBA1 gene lead to Gaucher’s disease, the most prevalent lysosomal storage disorder. GBA1 mutations reduce GCase activity, therefore promoting the aggregation of alpha-synuclein, a common neuropathological finding underlying Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies. However, it is ...

Effects of testosterone treatment on hypothalamic neuroplasticity in female-to-male transgender individuals

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is used to measure gray matter tissue density and white matter fiber organization/directionality. Recent studies show that DWI also allows for assessing neuroplastic adaptations in the human hypothalamus. To this end, we investigated a potential influence of testosterone replacement therapy on hypothalamic microstructure in female-to-male (FtM) ...

The corpus callosum as anatomical marker of intelligence? A critical examination in a large-scale developmental study

Intellectual abilities are supported by a large-scale fronto-parietal brain network distributed across both cerebral hemispheres. This bihemispheric network suggests a functional relevance of inter-hemispheric coordination, a notion which is supported by a series of recent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies demonstrating correlations between intelligence scores ...

Laterality of anterior temporal lobe repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation determines the degree of disruption in picture naming

The bilateral anterior temporal lobes play a key role in semantic representation. This is clearly demonstrated by the performance of patients with semantic dementia, a disorder characterised by a progressive and selective decline in semantic memory over all modalities as a result of anterior temporal atrophy. Although all patients exhibit a progressive decline in both single-word ...

Cortical morphology of the pars opercularis and its relationship to motor-inhibitory performance in a longitudinal, developing cohort

This study investigates the relationship between variability in cortical surface area and thickness of the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus and motor-inhibitory performance on a stop-signal task in a longitudinal, typically developing cohort of children and adolescents. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate the hypotheses that (1) cortical thinning and ...

Shifted dynamic interactions between subcortical nuclei and inferior frontal gyri during response preparation in persistent developmental stuttering

Persistent developmental stuttering is associated with basal ganglia dysfunction or dopamine dysregulation. Here, we studied whole-brain functional connectivity to test how basal ganglia structures coordinate and reorganize sensorimotor brain networks in stuttering. To this end, adults who stutter and fluent speakers (control participants) performed a response anticipation paradigm ...

Volume electron microscopy of the distribution of synapses in the neuropil of the juvenile rat somatosensory cortex

Knowing the proportions of asymmetric (excitatory) and symmetric (inhibitory) synapses in the neuropil is critical for understanding the design of cortical circuits. We used focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) to obtain stacks of serial sections from the six layers of the juvenile rat (postnatal day 14) somatosensory cortex (hindlimb representation). ...

Functional neuroimaging of visuo-vestibular interaction

The brain combines visual, vestibular and proprioceptive information to distinguish between self- and world motion. Often these signals are complementary and indicate that the individual is moving or stationary with respect to the surroundings. However, conflicting visual motion and vestibular cues can lead to ambiguous or false sensations of motion. In this study, we used ...

Semaphorin3A–neuropilin1 signalling is involved in the generation of cortical interneurons

Cortical interneurons are generated predominantly in the medial ganglionic eminence of the ventral telencephalon and migrate to the cortex during embryonic development. These cells express neuropilin (Nrp1 and Nrp2) receptors which mediate their response to the chemorepulsive class 3 semaphorin (Sema) ligands. We show here that semaphorins Sema3A and Sema3F are expressed in layers ...

Gradients of connectivity distance are anchored in primary cortex

Connectivity between distant cortical areas is a valuable, yet costly feature of cortical organization and is predominantly found between regions of heteromodal association cortex. The recently proposed ‘tethering hypothesis’ describes the emergence of long-distance connections in association cortex as a function of their spatial separation from primary cortical regions. Here, we ...

In vivo visualization of the locus coeruleus in humans: quantifying the test–retest reliability

The locus coeruleus (LC) is a brainstem nucleus involved in important cognitive functions. Recent developments in neuroimaging methods and scanning protocols have made it possible to visualize the human LC in vivo by utilizing a T1-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) scan. Despite its frequent use and its application as a biomarker for tracking the progress of monoaminergic-related ...

Increased glutamic acid decarboxylase expression in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus in depression

In depression, disrupted circadian rhythms reflect abnormalities in the central circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Although many SCN neurons are said to be GABAergic, it was not yet known whether and how SCN GABA changes occur in the SCN in depression. We, therefore, studied GABA in the SCN in relation to the changes in arginine vasopressin (AVP), ...

A latent measure explains substantial variance in white matter microstructure across the newborn human brain

A latent measure of white matter microstructure (g WM) provides a neural basis for information processing speed and intelligence in adults, but the temporal emergence of g WM during human development is unknown. We provide evidence that substantial variance in white matter microstructure is shared across a range of major tracts in the newborn brain. Based on diffusion MRI scans ...

Large-scale functional neural network correlates of response inhibition: an fMRI meta-analysis

An influential hypothesis from the last decade proposed that regions within the right inferior frontal cortex of the human brain were dedicated to supporting response inhibition. There is growing evidence, however, to support an alternative model, which proposes that neural areas associated with specific inhibitory control tasks co-exist as common network mechanisms, supporting ...

Nuclear derivatives and axonal projections originating from rhombomere 4 in the mouse hindbrain

The r4-derived territory is located in the pontine region of the brainstem, forming a wedge-shaped slice that broadens from the choroidal roof to the ventral midline. R4-derived neuronal populations migrate radially inside and tangentially outside this rhombomere, forming nuclei of the sensorimotor auditory, vestibular, trigeminal and reticular systems. R4-derived fibre tracts ...