Studies in East European Thought

http://link.springer.com/journal/11212

List of Papers (Total 54)

The experience of oppression and the price of nonconformity: a brief biography of Adam Podgórecki

Adam Podgórecki (1925–1998), a sociologist, author of brilliant Chinese-styled parables and a compulsory immigrant, is merely acknowledged in certain circles of sociologists in the world. The present article offers, first, a sketch of Podgórecki’s biography. As his life divided into two separate parts after he left communist Poland in 1977, he uniquely experienced dissimilar...

Smuta: cyclical visions of history in contemporary Russian thought and the question of hegemony

In the post-Soviet context, various cyclical models of recurrent Russian “Times of Troubles” (smuty) have become increasingly popular. This perspective emerged first in Soviet dissident circles (Alexander Yanov, Aleksandr Akhiezer), who used it as a means to expose as mistaken the Soviet belief in continual historical progress on Russian soil. In post-Soviet Russia this critical...

Philipp Frank on relativity in science and morality

As Einstein’s successor in Prague and the author of a biography on Einstein, the physicist and philosopher Philipp Frank made relativity a central aspect of his thoughts on morality. He published his views on this topic mainly in the year 1950 in a small book entitled Relativity—A Richer Truth. As far as morality as a part of social and political life is concerned, Frank’s...

Early phenomenology in Poland (1895–1945): origins, development, and breakdown

This article presents the development of the phenomenological movement in Poland in the period 1895–1945. It focuses on the early reactions to phenomenology and the later consolidation of the group of phenomenologists in Lvov. The article also explores the context of Polish phenomenology, its main figures, and their texts. The author suggests that early phenomenology in Poland...

Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz’s philosophy of mathematics

Ajdukiewicz’s account of mathematical theories is presented and analyzed. Theories consist of primary (original) and secondary (derivative) theorems. Theories go through three phases or stages: (a) preaxiomatic and intuitive, (b) axiomatic but intuitive, (c) axiomatic and abstract, whereas the final stage takes two forms: definitional and formal. Each stage is analyzed. The role...

Ajdukiewicz on justifying the laws of logic

The issue of the justification of the laws of logic has been under discussion since the end of the nineteenth century. However, in many works devoted to this problem Ajdukiewicz’s achievements are left unmentioned. It can be shown that in certain periods of the development of his views, he tried to present various attempts at solving the problem of the justification of the laws...

Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz on the concept of the world-view and the rationality of religious beliefs

The aim of the paper is presentation and critical analysis of Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz’s concept of the world-view. Ajdukiewicz’s philosophy was strongly inspired by the rationalism of Kazimierz Twardowski as well as by some ideas of the Vienna Circle. However, in contrast to the latter's logical empiricism, Ajdukiewicz could be interpreted as holding that beliefs constituting our...

Ajdukiewicz on skepticism

Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz understands skepticism as the thesis that there is no criterion of truth and that the justification of any thesis is impossible. According to Ajdukiewicz, a typical skeptic confuses two levels of justification: the first order justification of a proposition s and the second order justification of the proposition that s is justified. However, the first-order...

Ajdukiewicz on analyticity

This paper presents the development of Ajdukiewicz’s conception of analytic sentences. Starting from his pre-war radical conventionalism, the presentation proceeds to Ajdukiewicz’s moderate aposteriorism and, finally, to radical aposteriorism. Various accounts of analyticity by Ajdukiewicz are mentioned and briefly commented on. At the end of the paper, Ajdukiewicz’s influence on...

Dąmbska’s presentation of Ajdukiewicz’s conception of language

Izydora Dąmbska was one of the most outstanding representatives of the Lvov-Warsaw School and a disciple of both the School’s founder Kazimierz Twardowski and Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz. Interest in the School was the result of Twardowski’s program of scientific philosophy, which was adopted by the vast majority of his students. This program assumed that the basic condition for...

Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz on transcendental idealism from a semantic point of view

In a paper entitled A Semantical Version of the Problem of Transcendental Idealism, Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz gives a very impressive analysis of transcendental idealism. He approaches the matter using the tools of formal semantics developed by Alfred Tarski and draws a rather surprising conclusion. According to Ajdukiewicz, the idealist position, claiming that the world around us is...

Józef Maria Bocheński’s logical analyses of Question I of St. Thomas Aquinas’ Summa Theologiae

Bocheński claims that it would be very useful to apply logical tools to philosophical and theological investigations. His viewpoint can be ascribed to the fact that during Bocheński’s youth logic and reflections on the foundations of mathematics flourished. His seminal work on these issues is the book Gottes Dasein und Wesen. Logische Studien zur Summa Theologiae I, qq. 2–11...

Two approaches to the problem of universals by J. M. Bocheński

The main aim of the paper is to reconstruct and analyse two methodological approaches to the problem of universals, presented in Bocheński’s papers “Powszechniki jako treści cech w filozofii św. Tomasza z Akwinu” and “The Problem of Universals.” It is argued that, although these approaches are rather different from historical and methodological points of view, they are still...

Józef Bocheński and static religion

One of the most interesting aspects of Józef Bocheński’s philosophy was its relation to Henri Bergson’s thought, particularly to his philosophy of religion. Unlike the majority of the Catholic philosophers at that time, Bocheński did not stress the significance of dynamic religion, but rather focused on the role of static religion in human life. In his view, what was of...

Bocheński on authority

Józef Maria Bocheński introduced an important distinction between deontic and epistemic authority. A typical example of epistemic authority is the relation of a teacher to his students; a typical example of deontic authority is the relation between an employer and his employee. The difference between the two lies in domains of authority: declarative sentences make up the domain...