Studies in East European Thought

http://link.springer.com/journal/11212

List of Papers (Total 44)

Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz’s philosophy of mathematics

Ajdukiewicz’s account of mathematical theories is presented and analyzed. Theories consist of primary (original) and secondary (derivative) theorems. Theories go through three phases or stages: (a) preaxiomatic and intuitive, (b) axiomatic but intuitive, (c) axiomatic and abstract, whereas the final stage takes two forms: definitional and formal. Each stage is analyzed. The role of ...

Ajdukiewicz on justifying the laws of logic

The issue of the justification of the laws of logic has been under discussion since the end of the nineteenth century. However, in many works devoted to this problem Ajdukiewicz’s achievements are left unmentioned. It can be shown that in certain periods of the development of his views, he tried to present various attempts at solving the problem of the justification of the laws of ...

Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz on the concept of the world-view and the rationality of religious beliefs

The aim of the paper is presentation and critical analysis of Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz’s concept of the world-view. Ajdukiewicz’s philosophy was strongly inspired by the rationalism of Kazimierz Twardowski as well as by some ideas of the Vienna Circle. However, in contrast to the latter's logical empiricism, Ajdukiewicz could be interpreted as holding that beliefs constituting our ...

Ajdukiewicz on analyticity

This paper presents the development of Ajdukiewicz’s conception of analytic sentences. Starting from his pre-war radical conventionalism, the presentation proceeds to Ajdukiewicz’s moderate aposteriorism and, finally, to radical aposteriorism. Various accounts of analyticity by Ajdukiewicz are mentioned and briefly commented on. At the end of the paper, Ajdukiewicz’s influence on ...

Dąmbska’s presentation of Ajdukiewicz’s conception of language

Izydora Dąmbska was one of the most outstanding representatives of the Lvov-Warsaw School and a disciple of both the School’s founder Kazimierz Twardowski and Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz. Interest in the School was the result of Twardowski’s program of scientific philosophy, which was adopted by the vast majority of his students. This program assumed that the basic condition for ...

Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz on transcendental idealism from a semantic point of view

In a paper entitled A Semantical Version of the Problem of Transcendental Idealism, Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz gives a very impressive analysis of transcendental idealism. He approaches the matter using the tools of formal semantics developed by Alfred Tarski and draws a rather surprising conclusion. According to Ajdukiewicz, the idealist position, claiming that the world around us is ...

Ajdukiewicz on skepticism

Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz understands skepticism as the thesis that there is no criterion of truth and that the justification of any thesis is impossible. According to Ajdukiewicz, a typical skeptic confuses two levels of justification: the first order justification of a proposition s and the second order justification of the proposition that s is justified. However, the first-order ...

Józef Maria Bocheński’s logical analyses of Question I of St. Thomas Aquinas’ Summa Theologiae

Bocheński claims that it would be very useful to apply logical tools to philosophical and theological investigations. His viewpoint can be ascribed to the fact that during Bocheński’s youth logic and reflections on the foundations of mathematics flourished. His seminal work on these issues is the book Gottes Dasein und Wesen. Logische Studien zur Summa Theologiae I, qq. 2–11 ...

Two approaches to the problem of universals by J. M. Bocheński

The main aim of the paper is to reconstruct and analyse two methodological approaches to the problem of universals, presented in Bocheński’s papers “Powszechniki jako treści cech w filozofii św. Tomasza z Akwinu” and “The Problem of Universals.” It is argued that, although these approaches are rather different from historical and methodological points of view, they are still based ...

Józef Bocheński and static religion

One of the most interesting aspects of Józef Bocheński’s philosophy was its relation to Henri Bergson’s thought, particularly to his philosophy of religion. Unlike the majority of the Catholic philosophers at that time, Bocheński did not stress the significance of dynamic religion, but rather focused on the role of static religion in human life. In his view, what was of particular ...

Bocheński on authority

Józef Maria Bocheński introduced an important distinction between deontic and epistemic authority. A typical example of epistemic authority is the relation of a teacher to his students; a typical example of deontic authority is the relation between an employer and his employee. The difference between the two lies in domains of authority: declarative sentences make up the domain in ...

Józef M. Bocheński and the Cracow Circle

Józef M. Bocheński began his philosophical career as an eclectic philosopher, then switched to Thomism and finally became a representative of the analytic school. As a Thomist he wanted to reform this orientation by the resources of modern formal logic. This tendency culminated in the establishment of the Cracow Circle (established in 1936) whose members were Bocheński, Jan F. ...

J.M. Bocheński’s method of philosophical analysis and contemporary applied ontology

The aim of this article is to reconstruct Bocheński’s method of philosophical analysis as well as to clarify the purpose of that method and its basic elements. In the second part of the paper I will compare Bocheński’s method with the methods of modern applied ontology.

Bocheński on divine providence and human freedom

Prior to his ‘naturalistic turn’, Bocheński was a Thomist and defended the Thomist doctrine as a logically consistent and attractive philosophical system. Some opponents of Thomism interpreted this doctrine, Aquinas’s conception of divine providence included, as a kind of theological fatalism (or theological determinism) incompatible with human freedom. Bocheński dismissed such ...

Stanisław Brzozowski’s performative criticism

Stanisław Brzozowski was active as philosopher and literary critic for only a few years at the turn of the twentieth century, yet his writings are still inspire contemporary thinkers and critics. In every important phase of the development of Polish literary criticism, Polish intellectuals have acknowledged Brzozowski as a writer who had the courage and critical acumen to confront ...