Systematic Reviews

http://www.systematicreviewsjournal.com/

List of Papers (Total 802)

Military veterans with mental health problems: a protocol for a systematic review to identify whether they have an additional risk of contact with criminal justice systems compared with other veterans groups

Background There is concern that some veterans of armed forces, in particular those with mental health, drug or alcohol problems, experience difficulty returning to a civilian way of life and may subsequently come into contact with criminal justice services and imprisonment. The aim of this review is to examine whether military veterans with mental health problems, including...

Enhanced recovery after vascular surgery: protocol for a systematic review

Background The enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programme is a multimodal evidence-based approach to surgical care which begins in the preoperative setting and extends through to patient discharge in the postoperative period. The primary components of ERAS include the introduction of preoperative patient education; reduction in perioperative use of nasogastric tubes and...

A systematic review of the use of financial incentives and penalties to encourage uptake of healthy behaviors: protocol

Background The use of financial incentives and penalties to encourage uptake of healthy behaviors is increasingly seen as a viable intervention in developed countries. Previous reviews of the effectiveness of financial incentives and penalties for encouraging the uptake of healthy behaviors have focused on individual behaviors making it difficult to draw overall conclusions about...

Access to regulatory data from the European Medicines Agency: the times they are a-changing

Systematic reviewers are increasingly trying to obtain regulatory clinical study reports (CSRs) to correct for publication bias. For instance, our organization, the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care, routinely asks drug manufacturers to provide full CSRs of studies considered in health technology assessments. However, since cooperation is voluntary, CSRs are...

A systematic review of the role of school-based healthcare in adolescent sexual, reproductive, and mental health

Background Accessible sexual, reproductive, and mental healthcare services are crucial for adolescent health and wellbeing. It has been reported that school-based healthcare (SBHC) has the potential to improve the availability of services particularly for young people who are normally underserved. Locating health services in schools has the potential to reduce transport costs...

Implementing health promotion in schools: protocol for a realist systematic review of research and experience in the United Kingdom (UK)

Background School-based interventions and campaigns are used to promote health and address a wide variety of public health problems. Schools are considered to be key sites for the implementation of health promotion programmes for their potential to reach the whole population in particular age-groups and instil healthy patterns of behavior early in life. However, evidence for the...

A systematic review and meta-analysis of diabetes and risk of physical disability and functional impairment - protocol

Background Diabetes and increased age are known risk factors for physical disability. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes within our aging population, the future burden of disability is expected to increase. To date, there has not been a pooled estimate of the risk for disability associated with diabetes or its precursor states, impaired glucose tolerance and impaired...

The effectiveness of acupuncture research across components of the trauma spectrum response (tsr): a systematic review of reviews

Background Co-morbid symptoms (for example, chronic pain, depression, anxiety, and fatigue) are particularly common in military fighters returning from the current conflicts, who have experienced physical and/or psychological trauma. These overlapping conditions cut across the boundaries of mind, brain and body, resulting in a common symptomatic and functional spectrum of...

Functional assessments used by occupational therapists with older adults at risk of activity and participation limitations: a systematic review and evaluation of measurement properties

Background Older adults experience activity and participation limitations that are associated with ageing. Activity and participation limitations affect an older adult’s ability to engage in meaningful daily activities and valued life roles. Occupational therapists provide interventions to reduce such limitations and monitor client change to ensure that interventions are...

Drugs commonly associated with weight change: umbrella systematic review and meta-analysis (Protocol)

Background Many drugs and treatments given to patients for various reasons affect their weight. This side effect is of great importance to patients and is also a concern for the treating physician because weight change may lead to the emergence or worsening of other health conditions. Objective The aim of this study is to summarize the evidence about commonly prescribed drugs and...

Guidelines for randomized clinical trial protocol content: a systematic review

Background All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) require a protocol; however, numerous studies have highlighted protocol deficiencies. Reporting guidelines may improve the content of research reports and, if developed using robust methods, may increase the utility of reports to stakeholders. The objective of this study was to systematically identify and review RCT protocol...

Does intravascular ultrasound provide clinical benefits for percutaneous coronary intervention with bare-metal stent implantation? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Background The role of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) is still controversial despite several previously published meta-analyses. A meta-analysis to evaluate the controversial role of IVUS-guided PCI with bare-metal stenting was performed and a previous published meta-analysis was re-evaluated in order to clarify the discrepancy...

Sample size and power considerations in network meta-analysis

Background Network meta-analysis is becoming increasingly popular for establishing comparative effectiveness among multiple interventions for the same disease. Network meta-analysis inherits all methodological challenges of standard pairwise meta-analysis, but with increased complexity due to the multitude of intervention comparisons. One issue that is now widely recognized in...

A protocol for a systematic review for perioperative pregabalin use

Background Perioperative pain management has recently been revolutionized with the recognition of novel mechanisms and introduction of newer drugs. Many randomized trials have studied the use of the gabapentinoid anti-epileptic, pregabalin, in acute pain. Published systematic reviews suggest that using pregabalin for perioperative pain management may decrease analgesic...

Effectiveness of rifaximin and fluoroquinolones in preventing travelers’ diarrhea (TD): a systematic review and meta-analysis

BackgroundRecent developments related to a safe and effective nonabsorbable antibiotic, rifaximin, and identification of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome as a frequent sequela call for a need to reconsider the value of primary prevention of traveler’s diarrhea (TD) with antibiotics.MethodsRandomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies evaluating the effectiveness and...

Social gradients in child and adolescent antisocial behavior: a systematic review protocol

Background The relationship between social position and physical health is well-established across a range of studies. The evidence base regarding social position and mental health is less well developed, particularly regarding the development of antisocial behavior. Some evidence demonstrates a social gradient in behavioral problems, with children from low-socioeconomic...

How explicable are differences between reviews that appear to address a similar research question? A review of reviews of physical activity interventions

Background Systematic reviews are promoted as being important to inform decision-making. However, when presented with a set of reviews in a complex area, how easy is it to understand how and why they may differ from one another? Methods An analysis of eight reviews reporting evidence on effectiveness of community interventions to promote physical activity. We assessed review...

Overview of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of reminders in improving healthcare professional behavior

Objective The purpose of this project was to conduct an overview of existing systematic reviews to evaluate the effectiveness of reminders in changing professional behavior in clinical settings. Materials and methods Relevant systematic reviews of reminder interventions were identified through searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, DARE and the Cochrane Library in conjunction with a larger...

Effect of influenza vaccines against mismatched strains: a systematic review protocol

BackgroundInfluenza vaccines are most effective when the antigens in the vaccine match those of circulating influenza strains. The extent to which the vaccine is protective when circulating strains differ from vaccine antigens, or are mismatched, is uncertain. We propose to systematically review the cross-protection offered by influenza vaccines against circulating influenza A or...

A note on the graphical presentation of prediction intervals in random-effects meta-analyses

BackgroundMeta-analysis is used to combine the results of several related studies. Two different models are generally applied: the fixed-effect (FE) and random-effects (RE) models. Although the two approaches estimate different parameters (that is, the true effect versus the expected value of the distribution of true effects) in practice, the graphical presentation of results is...

Treatment of hyperprolactinemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

BackgroundHyperprolactinemia is a common endocrine disorder that can be associated with significant morbidity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of outcomes of hyperprolactinemic patients, including microadenomas and macroadenomas, to provide evidence-based recommendations for practitioners. Through this review, we aimed to compare efficacy and adverse effects of...

A framework for production of systematic review based briefings to support evidence-informed decision-making

BackgroundWe have developed a framework for translating existing sources of synthesized and quality-assessed evidence, primarily systematic reviews, into actionable messages in the form of short accessible briefings. The service aims to address real-life problems in response to requests from decision-makers.Development of the framework was based on a scoping review of existing...

Efficacy of cognitive enhancers for Alzheimer’s disease: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis

BackgroundApproximately 35 million people world-wide have Alzheimer’s disease and this is projected to nearly double by 2030. Cognitive enhancers, including cholinesterase inhibitors (for example, donepezil, galantamine and rivastigmine) and memantine (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist) have been approved for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease in many...

Mental health outcomes in HIV and childhood maltreatment: a systematic review

BackgroundHigh rates of childhood maltreatment have been documented in HIV-positive men and women. In addition, mental disorders are highly prevalent in both HIV-infected individuals and victims of childhood maltreatment. However, there is a paucity of research investigating the mental health outcomes associated with childhood maltreatment in the context of HIV infection. The...

Physical therapies as an adjunct to Botulinum toxin-A injection of the upper or lower limb in adults following neurological impairment

Background Spasticity of muscles is a common consequence of central nervous system impairment. Traditionally, neurological rehabilitation for spasticity has involved occupational and physical therapy; however, increasingly Botulinum toxin–A injections may be provided. Injection effects are temporary. Consequently, understanding the effect of adjunct physical therapies will help...