Systematic Reviews

http://www.systematicreviewsjournal.com/

List of Papers (Total 799)

Therapies for bruxism: a systematic review and network meta-analysis (protocol)

Background Bruxism is a sleep disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth that may be related to irreversible tooth injuries. It is a prevalent condition occurring in up to 31% of adults. However, there is no definitive answer as to which of the many currently available treatments (including drug therapy, intramuscular injections, physiotherapy, biofeedback, ...

Biofeedback interventions for people with cerebral palsy: a systematic review protocol

Background Cerebral palsy is a life-long disability that affects motor control and activities of daily living. Depending on the type of cerebral palsy, some individuals may have trouble performing tasks with one or both of their arms and/or legs. Different strategies exist to help develop motor capacity. Biofeedback therapy is a commonly applied rehabilitation strategy. In ...

Prosodic processing post traumatic brain injury - a systematic review

Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors often report difficulties with understanding and producing paralinguistic cues, as well as understanding and producing basic communication tasks. However, a large range of communicative deficits in this population cannot be adequately explained by linguistic impairment. The review examines prosodic processing performance post-TBI, ...

Interventions and assessment tools addressing key concepts people need to know to appraise claims about treatment effects: a systematic mapping review

Background People’s ability to appraise claims about treatment effects is crucial for informed decision-making. Our objective was to systematically map this area of research in order to (a) provide an overview of interventions targeting key concepts that people need to understand to assess treatment claims and (b) to identify assessment tools used to evaluate people’s understanding ...

Post-trial follow-up methodology in large randomized controlled trials: a systematic review protocol

Background Clinical trials typically have a relatively short follow-up period, and may both underestimate potential benefits of treatments investigated, and fail to detect hazards, which can take much longer to emerge. Prolonged follow-up of trial participants after the end of the scheduled trial period can provide important information on both efficacy and safety outcomes. This ...

Data extraction for complex meta-analysis (DECiMAL) guide

As more complex meta-analytical techniques such as network and multivariate meta-analyses become increasingly common, further pressures are placed on reviewers to extract data in a systematic and consistent manner. Failing to do this appropriately wastes time, resources and jeopardises accuracy. This guide (data extraction for complex meta-analysis (DECiMAL)) suggests a number of ...

Colonic thickening on computed tomography—does it correlate with endoscopic findings? A protocol for systematic review

Background Colonic mural thickening is often a finding in standard computed tomography (CT) scans of the abdomen. It often presents clinician with a dilemma on when a further endoscopic evaluation is needed, especially in the absence of guidelines. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the significance of bowel wall thickening and to assess its correlation with ...

The impact of oxytocin administration on brain activity: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

Converging evidence demonstrates the important role of the neuropeptide hormone oxytocin (OT) in human behaviour and cognition. Intranasal OT administration has been shown to improve several aspects of social communication, such as the theory of mind performance and gaze to the eye region, and reduce anxiety and related negative cognitive appraisals. While this early research has ...

Relationship between surgeon volume and outcomes: a systematic review of systematic reviews

Background The surgeon volume-outcome relationship has been discussed for many years and its existence or nonexistence is of importance for various reasons. A lot of empirical work has been published on it. We aimed to summarize systematic reviews in order to present current evidence. Methods Medline, Embase, Cochrane database of systematic reviews (CDSR), and health technology ...

Pharmacological interventions for delirium in intensive care patients: a protocol for an overview of reviews

Background The prevalence of delirium in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is high. Delirium has been associated with morbidity and mortality including more ventilator days, longer ICU stay, increased long-term mortality and cognitive impairment. Thus, the burden of delirium for patients, relatives and societies is considerable. Today, reviews of randomised clinical trials are ...

Rayyan—a web and mobile app for systematic reviews

Background Synthesis of multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in a systematic review can summarize the effects of individual outcomes and provide numerical answers about the effectiveness of interventions. Filtering of searches is time consuming, and no single method fulfills the principal requirements of speed with accuracy. Automation of systematic reviews is driven by a ...

Incidence, causes, and consequences of preventable adverse drug events: protocol for an overview of reviews

Background Medication errors represent a noteworthy source of harm to patients. In recent years, several systematic reviews have assessed the frequency and causes of these events, as well as other factors such as commonly associated drugs, their incidence in different specialties, and their consequences to patients. Despite this past literature, there remains a need to study ...

Carotid artery stenting versus no stenting assisting thrombectomy for acute ischaemic stroke: protocol for a systematic review of randomised clinical trials with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses

Background In patients with intracranial large vessel arterial occlusion, ipsilateral extracranial carotid artery occlusions or near-occlusions pose a significant hurdle in endovascular management of acute ischaemic stroke. Stenting of the carotid lesion may be beneficial in this situation to provide a stable access for introducing catheters through the carotid lesion into the ...

Prognostic biomarkers to identify patients destined to develop severe Crohn’s disease who may benefit from early biological therapy: protocol for a systematic review, meta-analysis and external validation

Background It is believed increasingly that patients with severe Crohn’s disease are best treated early with biological therapy, which may ameliorate subsequent disease course and diminish long-term complications. However, we cannot predict currently which new presentations of Crohn’s disease are destined to develop severe disease so treatment cannot be targeted to the most ...

Are digital interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy effective? A systematic review protocol

Background Behavioural support for smoking cessation in pregnancy can be effective; however, many pregnant women face barriers to seeking support to stop smoking. Some digital interventions have been found to be effective for smoking cessation in the general population and may be effective for supporting cessation in pregnancy due to their flexibility and the potential for ...

A systematic review of patient safety in mental health: a protocol based on the inpatient setting

Background Despite the growing international interest in patient safety as a discipline, there has been a lack of exploration of its application to mental health. It cannot be assumed that findings based upon physical health in acute care hospitals can be applied to mental health patients, disorders and settings. To the authors’ knowledge, there has only been one review of the ...

Consideration of health inequalities in systematic reviews: a mapping review of guidance

Background Given that we know that interventions shown to be effective in improving the health of a population may actually widen the health inequalities gap while others reduce it, it is imperative that all systematic reviewers consider how the findings of their reviews may impact (reduce or increase) on the health inequality gap. This study reviewed existing guidance on ...

Mental contrasting as a behaviour change technique: a systematic review protocol paper of effects, mediators and moderators on health

Background Mental contrasting is a self-regulation strategy that is required for strong goal commitment. In mental contrasting, individuals firstly imagine a desired future or health goal that contrasted with the reality proceeding the goal state, which after reflection is viewed as an obstacle (Oettingen et al. J Pers Soc Psychol 80:736–753, 2001). Mentally contrasting a positive ...

Melatonin and melatonin agonists to prevent and treat delirium in critical illness: a systematic review protocol

Background Delirium is a syndrome characterized by acute fluctuations and alterations in attention and arousal. Critically ill patients are at particularly high risk, and those that develop delirium are more likely to experience poor clinical outcomes such as prolonged duration of ICU and hospital length of stay, and increased mortality. Melatonin and melatonin agonists (MMA) have ...

Assessing the validity of abbreviated literature searches for rapid reviews: protocol of a non-inferiority and meta-epidemiologic study

Background Systematic reviews offer the most reliable and valid support for health policy decision-making, patient information, and guideline development. However, they are labor intensive and frequently take longer than 1 year to complete. Consequently, they often do not meet the needs of those who need to make decisions quickly. Rapid reviews have therefore become a pragmatic ...

Evaluating Data Abstraction Assistant, a novel software application for data abstraction during systematic reviews: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Background Data abstraction, a critical systematic review step, is time-consuming and prone to errors. Current standards for approaches to data abstraction rest on a weak evidence base. We developed the Data Abstraction Assistant (DAA), a novel software application designed to facilitate the abstraction process by allowing users to (1) view study article PDFs juxtaposed to ...

The prevalence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) use in non-clinical populations: a systematic review protocol

Background Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are new narcotic or psychotropic drugs that are not controlled by the United Nations drug convention that may pose a serious public health threat due to their wide availability for purchase on the internet and in so called “head shops.” Yet, the extent of their global use remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to conduct a ...

A mixed-methods systematic review protocol to examine the use of physical restraint with critically ill adults and strategies for minimizing their use

Background Critically ill patients frequently experience severe agitation placing them at risk of harm. Physical restraint is common in intensive care units (ICUs) for clinician concerns about safety. However, physical restraint may not prevent medical device removal and has been associated with negative physical and psychological consequences. While professional society ...

Pharmacological interventions for agitation in patients with traumatic brain injury: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide leading cause of mortality and disability. Among TBI complications, agitation is a frequent behavioural problem. Agitation causes potential harm to patients and caregivers, interferes with treatments, leads to unnecessary chemical and physical restraints, increases hospital length of stay, delays rehabilitation, and impedes ...

Meta-analysis, complexity, and heterogeneity: a qualitative interview study of researchers’ methodological values and practices

Background Complex or heterogeneous data pose challenges for systematic review and meta-analysis. In recent years, a number of new methods have been developed to meet these challenges. This qualitative interview study aimed to understand researchers’ understanding of complexity and heterogeneity and the factors which may influence the choices researchers make in synthesising ...