Systematic Reviews

http://www.systematicreviewsjournal.com/

List of Papers (Total 802)

Use of existing systematic reviews for evidence assessments in infectious disease prevention: a comparative case study

Background Given limited resources and time constraints, the use of existing systematic reviews (SR) for the development of evidence-based public health recommendations has become increasingly important. Recently, a five-step approach for identifying, analyzing, appraising and using existing SRs based on recent guidance by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ...

Reviewing the research methods literature: principles and strategies illustrated by a systematic overview of sampling in qualitative research

Background Overviews of methods are potentially useful means to increase clarity and enhance collective understanding of specific methods topics that may be characterized by ambiguity, inconsistency, or a lack of comprehensiveness. This type of review represents a distinct literature synthesis method, although to date, its methodology remains relatively undeveloped despite...

How best to structure interdisciplinary primary care teams: the study protocol for a systematic review with narrative framework synthesis

Background Western publicly funded health care systems increasingly rely on interdisciplinary teams to support primary care delivery and management of chronic conditions. This knowledge synthesis focuses on what is known in the academic and grey literature about optimal structural characteristics of teams. Its goal is to assess which factors contribute to the effective...

Accuracy of p57 KIP2 compared with genotyping for the diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background Distinguishing hydatidiform moles (HMs) from non-molar specimens and the subclassification of HM are important because complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) is associated with an increased risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. However, diagnosis based solely on morphology has poor interobserver reproducibility. Recent studies have demonstrated that the use of p57...

Utilization of screening mammography in older women according to comorbidity and age: protocol for a systematic review

Background Approximately half of new invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed each year in the United States occur among women aged 65 years and older. The increasing life expectancy coupled with the attendant rise in breast cancer incidence and elimination of out-of-pocket expenses for screening mammography as a result of the Affordable Care Act could lead to higher utilization...

An evidence synthesis of the international knowledge base for new care models to inform and mobilise knowledge for multispecialty community providers (MCPs)

Background NHS England’s Five Year Forward View (NHS England, Five Year Forward View, 2014) formally introduced a strategy for new models of care driven by simultaneous pressures to contain costs, improve care and deliver services closer to home through integrated models. This synthesis focuses on a multispecialty community provider (MCP) model. This new model of care seeks to...

Searching and synthesising ‘grey literature’ and ‘grey information’ in public health: critical reflections on three case studies

Background Grey literature includes a range of documents not controlled by commercial publishing organisations. This means that grey literature can be difficult to search and retrieve for evidence synthesis. Much knowledge and evidence in public health, and other fields, accumulates from innovation in practice. This knowledge may not even be of sufficient formality to meet the...

Relative efficacy of topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and topical capsaicin in osteoarthritis: protocol for an individual patient data meta-analysis

Background Pain is the most troubling issue to patients with osteoarthritis (OA), yet current pharmacological treatments offer only small-to-moderate pain reduction. Current guidelines therefore emphasise the need to identify predictors of treatment response. In line with these recommendations, an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis will be conducted. The study aims to...

Assessing the level of evidence on transfer and transition in young people with chronic conditions: protocol of a scoping review

Background Life-long specialized care is of the utmost importance to safeguard longevity as well as the quality of life in children diagnosed with a chronic condition (CC). Provision of life-long care, however, infers transfers to different settings in line with person’s development status. Young people with CC (10–25 years) will transfer care from a pediatric towards an adult...

Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of orthodontic mini implants in clinical practice: a systematic review

Background Numerous surveys have shown that orthodontic mini implants (OMIs) are underused in clinical practice. To investigate this implementation issue, we conducted a systematic review to (1) identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation of OMIs for all potential stakeholders and (2) quantify these implementation constructs, i.e., record their prevalence. We also...

Protocol for the systematic review of the prevention, treatment and public health management of impetigo, scabies and fungal skin infections in resource-limited settings

Background Impetigo, scabies, and fungal skin infections disproportionately affect populations in resource-limited settings. Evidence for standard treatment of skin infections predominantly stem from hospital-based studies in high-income countries. The evidence for treatment in resource-limited settings is less clear, as studies in these populations may lack randomisation and...

Impact of oncologist payment method on health care outcomes, costs, quality: a rapid review

Background The incidence of cancer and the cost of its treatment continue to rise. The effect of these dual forces is a major burden on the system of health care financing. One cost containment approach involves changing the way physicians are paid. Payers are testing reimbursement methods such as capitation and prospective payment while also evaluating how the changes impact...

Acupuncture for osteoporosis: a systematic review protocol

Background Osteoporosis is a global high prevalence of chronic metabolic disease with serious disability-adjusted life years losing. Acupuncture is used to treat osteoporosis broadly in China and other countries although the evidence on effectiveness cannot give a certain answer. The aim of this systematic review protocol is to appraise the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for...

Clinical research data sharing: what an open science world means for researchers involved in evidence synthesis

The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recently announced a bold step forward to require data generated by interventional clinical trials that are published in its member journals to be responsibly shared with external investigators. The movement toward a clinical research culture that supports data sharing has important implications for the design...

Comparison of sedation strategies for critically ill patients: a protocol for a systematic review incorporating network meta-analyses

Background Sedatives and analgesics are administered to provide sedation and manage agitation and pain in most critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. Various sedation administration strategies including protocolized sedation and daily sedation interruption are used to mitigate drug pharmacokinetic limitations and minimize oversedation, thereby shortening the duration of...

Predictors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in primary care: a systematic review protocol

Background Antiretroviral therapies for human immunodeficiency virus are more effective if infected individuals are diagnosed early, before they have irreversible immunologic damage. A large proportion of patients that are diagnosed with HIV, in United Kingdom, would have seen a general practitioner (GP) within the previous year. Determining the demographic and clinical...

Comparative effectiveness of immunosuppressive drugs and corticosteroids for lupus nephritis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Background There is a lack of high-quality meta-analyses and network meta-analyses of immunosuppressive drugs for lupus nephritis. Our objective was to assess the comparative benefits and harms of immunosuppressive drugs and corticosteroids in lupus nephritis. Methods We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) of trials of immunosuppressive drugs and...

Prevalence and incidence of chronic wounds and related complications: a protocol for a systematic review

Background Chronic wounds impose a significant and often underappreciated burden to the individual, the healthcare system and the society as a whole. Preliminary literature search suggests that there are at present no reliable estimates on the total prevalence of chronic wounds for different settings and categories of chronic wounds. Such information is essential for policy and...

Alpha-2 agonists for sedation in mechanically ventilated neurocritical care patients: a systematic review protocol

Background Sedation is an important consideration in the care of the neurocritically ill patient. It provides anxiety and relief, facilitates procedures and nursing tasks, and minimizes intolerance of mechanical ventilation. Alpha-2 agonists such as dexmedetomidine and clonidine have been shown to be an effective alternative in the general critical care population by reducing...

Comparison of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to prevent delirium in critically ill patients: a protocol for a systematic review incorporating network meta-analyses

Background Delirium is characterized by acute changes in mental status including inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered level of consciousness, and is highly prevalent in critically ill adults. Delirium has adverse consequences for both patients and the healthcare system; however, at this time, no effective treatment exists. The identification of effective prevention...

Viscoelastic testing for hepatic surgery: a systematic review with meta-analysis—a protocol

Background Viscoelastic tests, including thromboelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), provide a global assessment of haemostatic function at the point of care. The use of a TEG or ROTEM system to guide blood product administration has been shown in some surgical settings to reduce transfusion requirements. The aim of this review is to evaluate all...

Self-management interventions to improve skin care for pressure ulcer prevention in people with spinal cord injuries: a systematic review protocol

Background Pressure ulcers are a serious, common, lifelong, and costly secondary complication of spinal cord injury (SCI). Community-dwelling people with a SCI can prevent them with appropriate skin care (i.e. pressure relieving activities, skin checks). Adherence to skin care remains suboptimal however, and self-management interventions that focus on improving this have been...

The timing of complementary feeding in preterm infants and the effect on overweight: study protocol for a systematic review

Background In term infants, there is evidence that early complementary feeding is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Therefore, timely introduction of complementary feeding during infancy is necessary. The World Health Organization (WHO) and European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) both developed recommendations for the start of...

Relative efficacy of different types of exercise for treatment of knee and hip osteoarthritis: protocol for network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Background ‘Exercise’ is universally recommended as a core treatment for knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA). However, there are very few head-to-head comparative trials to determine the relative efficacy between different types of exercise. The aim of this study is to benchmark different types of exercises against each other through the use of a common comparator in a network meta...