Systematic Reviews

http://www.systematicreviewsjournal.com/

List of Papers (Total 800)

Association between cannabis use and treatment outcomes in patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment: a systematic review protocol

Background With the non-medical use of prescription opioids increasingly becoming a method of abuse in Canada, the number of patients requiring methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opioid use disorder has increased dramatically. The rate of cannabis use in this population is disproportionately high (~50 %). Because its use is generally perceived as harmless, cannabis use is ...

Examining the use of process evaluations of randomised controlled trials of complex interventions addressing chronic disease in primary health care—a systematic review protocol

Background Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of complex interventions in primary health care (PHC) are needed to provide evidence-based programmes to achieve the Declaration of Alma Ata goal of making PHC equitable, accessible and universal and to effectively address the rising burden from chronic disease. Process evaluations of these RCTs can provide insight into the causal ...

Effective non-drug interventions for improving outcomes and quality of maternal health care in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

Background Many interventions have been implemented to improve maternal health outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Currently, however, systematic information on the effectiveness of these interventions remains scarce. We conducted a systematic review of published evidence on non-drug interventions that reported effectiveness in improving outcomes and quality of care in maternal ...

Association between mesothelin expression and survival outcomes in patients with triple-negative breast cancer: a protocol for a systematic review

Background Mesothelin is a membrane-bound glycoprotein. Although the biologic function of mesothelin is not very clear, researchers have found that it plays a role in the survival, proliferation, and migration of tumor cells. Identified as a tumor-associated biomarker, mesothelin is more often overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) than in common luminal breast tumor ...

Barriers and enablers to diabetic retinopathy screening attendance: Protocol for a systematic review

Background Diabetic retinopathy is a serious complication of diabetes which, if left untreated, can result in blindness. Population screening among people with diabetes has been shown to be clinically effective; however, suboptimal attendance with wide demographic disparities has been reported. To develop quality improvement interventions to maximise attendance, it is important to ...

Eliciting women’s cervical screening preferences: a mixed methods systematic review protocol

Background With the accumulation of evidence regarding potential harms of cancer screening in recent years, researchers, policy-makers, and the public are becoming more critical of population-based cancer screening. Consequently, a high-quality cancer screening program should consider individuals’ values and preferences when determining recommendations. In cervical cancer ...

User survey finds rapid evidence reviews increased uptake of evidence by Veterans Health Administration leadership to inform fast-paced health-system decision-making

Background To provide evidence synthesis for faster-paced healthcare decision-making, rapid reviews have emerged as a streamlined alternative to standard systematic reviews. In 2012, the Veterans Affairs Evidence-based Synthesis Program (VA ESP) added rapid reviews to support Veterans Health Administration (VHA) operational partners’ more urgent decision-making needs. VHA ...

A protocol for a systematic review of non-randomised evaluations of strategies to improve participant recruitment to randomised controlled trials

Background Randomised controlled trials guard against selection bias and therefore offer the fairest way of evaluating healthcare interventions such as medicinal products, devices and services. Recruitment to trials can be extremely difficult, and poor recruitment can lead to extensions to both time and budget and may result in an underpowered study which does not satisfactorily ...

Impact of cytomegalovirus reactivation on clinical outcomes in immunocompetent critically ill patients: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in critically ill patients is a well-recognized phenomenon with an incidence as high as 71 %. A number of studies have investigated the association between CMV reactivation and outcomes in critically ill patients with conflicting results. We propose to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the impact of CMV ...

The effectiveness of mental health courts in reducing recidivism and police contact: a systematic review protocol

Background Mental health courts were created to help criminal defendants who have a mental illness that significantly contributes to their criminal offense. Despite the increasing number of mental health courts around the world, data about their effectiveness have only begun to emerge in the past decade. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to assess the current ...

A systematic review protocol investigating tests for physical or physiological qualities and game-specific skills commonly used in rugby and related sports and their psychometric properties

Background Scientific focus on rugby has increased over the recent years, providing evidence of the physical or physiological characteristics and game-specific skills needed in the sport. Identification of tests commonly used to measure these characteristics is important for the development of test batteries, which in turn may be used for talent identification and injury prevention ...

The effectiveness and safety of proton beam radiation therapy in children with malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumours: protocol for a systematic review

Background The aim of this study is to use a systematic review framework to identify and synthesise the evidence on the use of proton beam therapy (PBT) for the treatment of children with CNS tumours and where possible compare this to the use of photon radiotherapy (RT). Methods Standard systematic review methods aimed at minimising bias will be employed for study identification, ...

Food groups and risk of chronic disease: a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis of cohort studies

Background There is a lack of systematic and comprehensive evaluations whether food intakes lower or increase risk of chronic diseases. In this network meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies, we aim to evaluate the effects of different foods on risk of chronic diseases. Methods/design We will search PubMed and EMBASE. This will be supplemented by a hand search and author ...

An evidence map of the effect of Tai Chi on health outcomes

Background This evidence map describes the volume and focus of Tai Chi research reporting health outcomes. Originally developed as a martial art, Tai Chi is typically taught as a series of slow, low-impact movements that integrate the breath, mind, and physical activity to achieve greater awareness and a sense of well-being. Methods The evidence map is based on a systematic review ...

What change in body mass index is needed to improve metabolic health status in childhood obesity: protocol for a systematic review

Background Childhood obesity is one of the most serious, global, public health challenges and has adverse health consequences in both the short-and long-term. The purpose of this study is to establish the change in body mass index (BMI) needed to achieve improvements in metabolic health status in obese children and adolescents attending lifestyle treatment interventions. Methods ...

Progesterone vs. synthetic progestins and the risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background Use of menopausal hormonal therapy (MHT)-containing estrogen and a synthetic progestin is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. It is unclear if progesterone in combination with estrogen carries a lower risk of breast cancer. Limited data suggest differences between progesterone and progestins on cardiovascular risk factors, including cholesterol and ...

Understanding the theoretical underpinning of the exercise component in a fall prevention programme for older adults with mild dementia: a realist review protocol

Background Older adults with mild dementia are at an increased risk of falls. Preventing those at risk from falling requires complex interventions involving patient-tailored strength- and balance-challenging exercises, home hazard assessment, visual impairment correction, medical assessment and multifactorial combinations. Evidence for these interventions in older adults with mild ...

Risk factors for unplanned and crash dialysis starts: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

Background Many patients with kidney failure “crash” onto dialysis or initiate dialysis in an unplanned fashion. There are varying definitions, but essentially, a patient is labeled as having a crash dialysis start if he or she has little to no care by a nephrologist prior to starting dialysis. A patient is labeled as having an unplanned dialysis start when he or she starts ...

The impact of intervention strategies that target arterial stiffness in end-stage renal disease: a systematic review protocol

Background/objectives Vascular damage contributes to the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Increased aortic stiffness measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) is a strong and independent predictor of the cardiovascular risk in ESRD patients. Recently, there has been considerable interest in developing strategies to lessen ...

Previously unidentified duplicate registrations of clinical trials: an exploratory analysis of registry data worldwide

Background Trial registries were established to combat publication bias by creating a comprehensive and unambiguous record of initiated clinical trials. However, the proliferation of registries and registration policies means that a single trial may be registered multiple times (i.e., “duplicates”). Because unidentified duplicates threaten our ability to identify trials ...

Cochrane: the unfinished symphony of research synthesis

The NHS needs valid information on the safety and effectiveness of healthcare interventions. Cochrane systematic reviews are an important source of this information. Traditionally, Cochrane has attempted to identify and include all relevant trials in systematic reviews on the basis that if all trials are identified and included, there should be no selection bias. However, a ...

A critical evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions for improving the well-being of caregivers of children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review protocol

Background Over the years, family-centered care has evolved as the “gold standard” model for the provision of healthcare services. With the advent of family-centered approach to care comes the inherent need to provide support services to caregivers in addition to meeting the functional needs of children with physical disabilities such as cerebral palsy (CP). Provision of care for a ...

Appraisal of clinical practice guidelines for management of paediatric type 2 diabetes mellitus using the AGREE II instrument: a systematic review protocol

Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children and adolescents is increasing. This has spurred the development and publication of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for the management of paediatric T2DM. Given the long-term complications of T2DM, optimal management is important to prevent or delay these complications. However, the quality of published ...

Drug-based pain management in people with dementia after hip or pelvic fractures: a systematic review protocol

Background Studies show that people with dementia do not receive the same amount of analgesia after a hip or pelvic fracture compared to those without cognitive impairment. However, there is no systematic review that shows to what extent and how drug-based pain management is performed for people with dementia following a hip or pelvic fracture. The aim of this systematic review is ...

The impact of cash transfers on social determinants of health and health inequalities in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review protocol

Background There is increasing pressure to address the social determinants of health (SDoH) and health inequities through the implementation of culturally acceptable interventions particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where health outcomes are generally poor. Available evaluation research on cash transfers (CTs) suggests that the programs may influence the wider determinants of ...