Mycotoxin Research

http://link.springer.com/journal/12550

List of Papers (Total 28)

Glucosylation of T-2 and HT-2 toxins using biotransformation and chemical synthesis: Preparation, stereochemistry, and stability

Plant-derived phase II metabolites of T-2 toxin (T2) and HT-2 toxin (HT2) were first described in 2011 and further characterized in the following years. Since then, some efforts have been made to understand their biosynthesis, occurrence, toxicity, toxicokinetics, and finally relevance for consumers. Thus, the probably most important question is whether and how these metabolites...

Dietary deoxynivalenol does not affect mineral element accumulation in breast and thigh muscles of broiler chicken

Deoxynivalenol (DON), a well-known contaminant of feed, can have negative effects on gut permeability and function in poultry, which then could affect major and trace element content of the broilers’ breast and thigh muscles, and ultimately reduce meat quality. To study this hypothesis, DON-contaminated diet was fed to broiler chicks. Two groups of birds were housed in metabolic...

Survey of moniliformin in wheat- and corn-based products using a straightforward analytical method

A straightforward analytical method was developed and validated to determine the mycotoxin moniliformin in cereal-based foods. Moniliformin is extracted with water and quantified with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and its presence confirmed with liquid chromatography-Orbitrap-high-resolution mass spectrometry. The method was validated for flour, bread, pasta and...

Occurrence of aflatoxins and its management in diverse cropping systems of central Tanzania

The staple crops, maize, sorghum, bambara nut, groundnut, and sunflower common in semi-arid agro-pastoral farming systems of central Tanzania are prone to aflatoxin contamination. Consumption of such crop produce, contaminated with high levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), affects growth and health. In this paper, aflatoxin contamination in freshly harvested and stored crop produce...

Effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its microbial biotransformation product deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) on a trout, pig, mouse, and human cell line

Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene produced by various Fusarium species, is one of the most prevalent food- and feed-associated mycotoxins. The effects of DON and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) were assessed in five different cell lines from different tissues and species starting from the first line of defense, the trout gill (RTgill-W1) and pig intestinal cells (IPEC-1 and...

Effects of low to moderate levels of deoxynivalenol on feed and water intake, weight gain, and slaughtering traits of broiler chickens

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of low to moderate oral exposure to the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON; derived from culture material) on performance, water intake, and carcass parameters of broilers during early and late developmental phases. A total of 160 Ross 308 broilers were randomly allocated to four different feeding groups (n = 40/group) including 0...

Chronic DON exposure and acute LPS challenge: effects on porcine liver morphology and function

The aim of the present study was to examine the role of chronic deoxynivalenol (DON) exposition on the liver morphology and function in combination with pre- and post-hepatic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stress in young pigs fed for 4 weeks with a DON-contaminated diet (4.59 mg/kg feed). At the end of the experiment, LPS (7.5 μg/kg BW) was administered for 1 h pre-hepatically (Vena...

Haematological, clinical–chemical and immunological consequences of feeding Fusarium toxin contaminated diets to early lactating dairy cows

Dairy cows experience a negative energy balance at the onset of lactation which results in an enhanced vulnerability for infectious diseases. Any dietary imbalances, including Fusarium toxin contamination, might therefore exacerbate this situation. The aim of the present investigations was to study the effects of increasing dietary concentrations of deoxynivalenol (DON) and...

Deoxynivalenol and its metabolite deepoxy-deoxynivalenol: multi-parameter analysis for the evaluation of cytotoxicity and cellular effects

The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) contaminates agricultural commodities worldwide, posing health threats to humans and animals. Associated with DON are derivatives, such as deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1), produced by enzymatic transformation of certain intestinal bacteria, which are naturally occurring or applied as feed additives. Using differentiated porcine intestinal...

Impact of food processing and detoxification treatments on mycotoxin contamination

Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly occurring in food, which pose a health risk to the consumer. Maximum levels for major mycotoxins allowed in food have been established worldwide. Good agricultural practices, plant disease management, and adequate storage conditions limit mycotoxin levels in the food chain yet do not eliminate mycotoxins completely. Food processing can...

Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and Fusarium graminearum contamination of cereal straw; field distribution; and sampling of big bales

Sampling of straw bales from wheat, barley, and oats was carried out after harvest showing large variations in deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) levels. In the wheat field, DON was detected in all straw samples with an average DON concentration of 976 μg/kg and a median of 525 μg/kg, while in four bales, the concentrations were above 3000 μg/kg. For ZEN, the...

In vivo formation of N-acyl-fumonisin B1

Fumonisins are fungal toxins found in corn and in corn-based foods. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most common and is toxic to animals, causes cancer in rodents, and is a suspected risk factor for cancer and birth defects in humans. The hydrolyzed form of FB1 (HFB1) also occurs in foods and is metabolized by rats to compounds collectively known as N-acyl-HFB1 (also known as N-acyl-AP1...

Dietary ergot alkaloids as a possible cause of tail necrosis in rabbits

This study describes the association between tail necrosis in rabbits and mycotoxins in rabbit feed. Clinical cases of tail necrosis were observed in 14 out of 103 rabbits kept in an outdoor group housing, fed with hay and a commercial pelleted feed. The observed clinical symptoms, alopecia, erosions, crusts and necrosis were restricted to the tail area and exclusively occurred...

Proposal of a comprehensive definition of modified and other forms of mycotoxins including “masked” mycotoxins

As the term “masked mycotoxins” encompasses only conjugated mycotoxins generated by plants and no other possible forms of mycotoxins and their modifications, we hereby propose for all these forms a systematic definition consisting of four hierarchic levels. The highest level differentiates the free and unmodified forms of mycotoxins from those being matrix-associated and from...

Deoxynivalenol affects the composition of the basement membrane proteins and influences en route the migration of CD16+ cells into the intestinal epithelium

The numerous pores in the basement membrane (BM) of the intestinal villi are essential for the communication of enterocytes with cells in the lamina propria, an important mechanism for the induction of intestinal immune responses. The intestinal epithelial barrier is affected by the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) from both the apical (luminal) and basolateral (serosal) side. The...

Analysis of cocoa products for ochratoxin A and aflatoxins

Eighty-five samples of cocoa products sampled in Canada were analysed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins in 2011–2012. Inclusion of the aflatoxins in this survey required additional method development. Chocolate was extracted with methanol–water plus NaCl, while for cocoa two successive extractions with methanol and methanol–water were made. Extracts were cleaned on an...

Regulation of metabolic products and gene expression in Fusarium asiaticum by agmatine addition

The metabolic products resulting from the cultivation of F. asiaticum in agmatine were identified using capillary electrophoresis–time of flight mass spectrometry. Glyoxylic acid was detected from fungal cultures grown in agmatine, while it was absent in control cells. The abundance of other metabolic products of the glycolytic pathway also increased because of agmatine; however...

Alternaria toxins alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in grain foods in Canada

Alternaria alternata has been reported to be the most common fungus on Canadian Western wheat. The Alternaria toxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) are mutagenic in vitro and there is also limited evidence for carcinogenic properties. They have been found in wheat from Europe, Argentina, China and Australia, but they have not been looked for in Canadian...

Natural multi-occurrence of mycotoxins in rice from Niger State, Nigeria

Twenty-one rice samples from field (ten), store (six) and market (five) from the traditional rice-growing areas of Niger State, Nigeria were analysed for aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and B2 (FB2), and patulin (PAT) by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) respectively...

Development of a multiplex flow cytometric microsphere immunoassay for mycotoxins and evaluation of its application in feed

A multi-mycotoxin immunoassay—using the MultiAnalyte Profiling (xMAP) technology—is developed and evaluated. This technology combines a unique color-coded microsphere suspension array, with a dedicated flow cytometer. We aimed for the combined detection of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, zearalenone and T-2-toxin in an inhibition immunoassay format. Sets of...