Molecular Imaging and Biology

http://link.springer.com/journal/11307

List of Papers (Total 187)

ESPMIS: Helping Young Scientists Navigate the Molecular Imaging Landscape

The core mission of the Early Stage Professionals in Molecular Imaging Sciences (ESPMIS) Interest Group is to help young scientists navigate the professional landscape of molecular imaging. Since its formation in early 2015, ESPMIS has used the annual World Molecular Imaging Congress (WMIC) as a platform to provide education and guidance on three areas that are particularly...

[68Ga]NOTA-Galactosyl Human Serum Albumin: a Tracer for Liver Function Imaging with Improved Stability

Purpose Non-invasive techniques allowing quantitative determination of the functional liver mass are of great interest for patient management in a variety of clinical settings. Recently, we presented [68Ga]DTPA-GSA to target the hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor for this purpose. Here, we introduce [68Ga]NOTA-GSA to improve metabolic stability of the radiopharmaceutical and...

Radiosynthesis and Preclinical Evaluation of [18F]F-DPA, A Novel Pyrazolo[1,5a]pyrimidine Acetamide TSPO Radioligand, in Healthy Sprague Dawley Rats

Purpose Many neurological conditions result in the overexpression of the translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), today recognized as a biomarker for microglial activation and neuroinflammation imaging. The pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine acetamides are a particularly attractive class of TSPO-specific ligands, prompting the development of several positron emission tomography (PET...

Dosimetry in Micro-computed Tomography: a Review of the Measurement Methods, Impacts, and Characterization of the Quantum GX Imaging System

Purpose X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) is a widely used imaging modality in preclinical research with applications in many areas including orthopedics, pulmonology, oncology, cardiology, and infectious disease. X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation and, therefore, can potentially induce damage and cause detrimental effects. Previous reviews have touched on these effects...

N-[11C]Methyl-AMD3465 PET as a Tool for In Vivo Measurement of Chemokine Receptor 4 (CXCR4) Occupancy by Therapeutic Drugs

Purpose Chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is overexpressed in many cancers and a potential drug target. We have recently developed the tracer N-[11C]methyl-AMD3465 for imaging of CXCR4 expression by positron emission tomography (PET). We investigated the pharmacokinetics of N-[11C]methyl-AMD3465 in rats bearing a C6 tumor and assessed whether the CXCR4 occupancy by the drug Plerixafor...

Response Monitoring with [18F]FLT PET and Diffusion-Weighted MRI After Cytotoxic 5-FU Treatment in an Experimental Rat Model for Colorectal Liver Metastases

Purpose The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and 3′-dexoy-3′-[18F]fluorothymidine ([18F]FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) as early biomarkers of treatment response of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in a syngeneic rat model of colorectal cancer liver metastases. Procedures Wag/Rij rats with intrahepatic...

A Novel Unsupervised Segmentation Approach Quantifies Tumor Tissue Populations Using Multiparametric MRI: First Results with Histological Validation

Purpose We aimed to precisely estimate intra-tumoral heterogeneity using spatially regularized spectral clustering (SRSC) on multiparametric MRI data and compare the efficacy of SRSC with the previously reported segmentation techniques in MRI studies. Procedures Six NMRI nu/nu mice bearing subcutaneous human glioblastoma U87 MG tumors were scanned using a dedicated small animal...

Guidance for Efficient Small Animal Imaging Quality Control

Routine quality control is a critical aspect of properly maintaining high-performance small animal imaging instrumentation. A robust quality control program helps produce more reliable data both for academic purposes and as proof of system performance for contract imaging work. For preclinical imaging laboratories, the combination of costs and available resources often limits...

Radiation Dosimetry of a Novel Adenosine A2A Receptor Radioligand [11C]Preladenant Based on PET/CT Imaging and Ex Vivo Biodistribution in Rats

Purpose [11C]Preladenant was developed as a novel adenosine A2A receptor PET radioligand. The aim of this study was to determine the radiation dosimetry of [11C]preladenant and to investigate whether dosimetry estimation based on organ harvesting can be replaced by positron emission tomography (PET)/x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging in rats. Procedures Male Wistar rats (n...

Combined PET/MRI: from Status Quo to Status Go. Summary Report of the Fifth International Workshop on PET/MR Imaging; February 15–19, 2016; Tübingen, Germany

This article provides a collaborative perspective of the discussions and conclusions from the fifth international workshop of combined positron emission tomorgraphy (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that was held in Tübingen, Germany, from February 15 to 19, 2016. Specifically, we summarise the second part of the workshop made up of invited presentations from active...

Comparative Evaluation of Three TSPO PET Radiotracers in a LPS-Induced Model of Mild Neuroinflammation in Rats

Purpose Over the past 20 years, neuroinflammation (NI) has increasingly been recognised as having an important role in  many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. As such, being able to image NI non-invasively in patients is critical to monitor pathological processes and potential therapies targeting neuroinflammation. The translocator protein (TSPO) has...

Multimodal Imaging Reveals Improvement of Blood Supply to an Artificial Cell Transplant Site Induced by Bioluminescent Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Purpose An artificial site for cell or pancreatic islet transplantation can be created using a polymeric scaffold, even though it suffers subcutaneously from improper vascularisation. A sufficient blood supply is crucial for graft survival and function and can be enhanced by transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of...

Evaluating [11C]PBR28 PET for Monitoring Gut and Brain Inflammation in a Rat Model of Chemically Induced Colitis

Purpose Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon that affects an increasing number of patients. High comorbidity is observed between UC and other diseases in which inflammation may be involved, including brain diseases such as cognitive impairment, mental disorders, anxiety, and depression. To investigate the increased occurrence of these brain...

Investigation of the Brain Biodistribution of the Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) Inhibitor [18F]GSK2647544 in Healthy Male Subjects

PurposeGSK2647544 is a potent and specific inhibitor of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), which was in development as a potential treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In order to refine therapeutic dose predictions and confirm brain penetration, a radiolabelled form of the inhibitor, [18F]GSK2647544, was manufactured for use in a positron emission tomography...

Fluorescent Affibody Molecule Administered In Vivo at a Microdose Level Labels EGFR Expressing Glioma Tumor Regions

Purpose Fluorescence guidance in surgical oncology provides the potential to realize enhanced molecular tumor contrast with dedicated targeted tracers, potentially with a microdose injection level. For most glioma tumors, the blood brain barrier is compromised allowing some exogenous drug/molecule delivery and accumulation for imaging. The aberrant overexpression and/or...

Pre-clinical Evaluation of a Cyanine-Based SPECT Probe for Multimodal Tumor Necrosis Imaging

Purpose Recently we showed that a number of carboxylated near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) cyanine dyes possess strong necrosis avid properties in vitro as well as in different mouse models of spontaneous and therapy-induced tumor necrosis, indicating their potential use for cancer diagnostic- and prognostic purposes. In the previous study, the detection of the cyanines was...

Selecting Tumor-Specific Molecular Targets in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Paving the Way for Image-Guided Pancreatic Surgery

Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify suitable molecular targets for tumor-specific imaging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Procedures The expression of eight potential imaging targets was assessed by the target selection criteria (TASC)—score and immunohistochemical analysis in normal pancreatic tissue (n = 9), pancreatic (n = 137), and periampullary (n = 28...

Novel Approach to Repeated Arterial Blood Sampling in Small Animal PET: Application in a Test-Retest Study with the Adenosine A1 Receptor Ligand [11C]MPDX

Purpose Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) can be used to detect small changes in neuroreceptor availability. This often requires rapid arterial blood sampling. However, current catheterization procedures do not allow repeated blood sampling. We have developed a procedure which allows arterial sampling on repeated occasions in the same animal. Procedures Eleven male...

Repeatability of Radiomic Features in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer [18F]FDG-PET/CT Studies: Impact of Reconstruction and Delineation

Purpose To assess (1) the repeatability and (2) the impact of reconstruction methods and delineation on the repeatability of 105 radiomic features in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomorgraphy/computed tomography (PET/CT) studies. Procedures Eleven NSCLC patients received two baseline whole-body PET/CT scans. Each...

Comparison of Ga-68-Labeled Fusarinine C-Based Multivalent RGD Conjugates and [68Ga]NODAGA-RGD—In Vivo Imaging Studies in Human Xenograft Tumors

PurposeMultimeric arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides have advantages for imaging integrin αvβ3 expression. Here, we compared the in vitro and in vivo behavior of three different Ga-68-labeled multimeric Fusarinine C-RGD (FSC-RGD) conjugates, whereby RGD was coupled directly, via a succinic acid or PEG linker (FSC(RGDfE)3, FSC(succ-RGD)3, FSC(Mal-RGD)3). The positron...

Strain Differences Determine the Suitability of Animal Models for Noninvasive In Vivo Beta Cell Mass Determination with Radiolabeled Exendin

PurposeNoninvasive beta cell mass (BCM) quantification is a crucial tool to understand diabetes development and progression. [111In]exendin is a promising agent for in vivo beta cell imaging, but tracer testing has been hampered by the lack of well-defined rodent models.ProceduresBiodistribution and pancreatic uptake of [111In]exendin were compared in rats and mice. In selected...

Reactive Oxygen Species Imaging in a Mouse Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Purpose Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important contributors to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, there are insufficient tools for their in vivo evaluation. Procedures To determine if a chemiluminescent ROS reporter, coelenterazine, would be a useful tool for the detection of immune cell activation, the macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) was treated with phorbol...

Site-Specifically Labeled Immunoconjugates for Molecular Imaging—Part 1: Cysteine Residues and Glycans

Due to their remarkable selectivity and specificity for cancer biomarkers, immunoconjugates have emerged as extremely promising vectors for the delivery of diagnostic radioisotopes and fluorophores to malignant tissues. Paradoxically, however, these tools for precision medicine are synthesized in a remarkably imprecise way. Indeed, the vast majority of immunoconjugates are...