Theoretical and Applied Climatology

http://link.springer.com/journal/704

List of Papers (Total 179)

Spatial analysis of precipitation time series over the Upper Indus Basin

The upper Indus basin (UIB) holds one of the most substantial river systems in the world, contributing roughly half of the available surface water in Pakistan. This water provides necessary support for agriculture, domestic consumption, and hydropower generation; all critical for a stable economy in Pakistan. This study has identified trends, analyzed variability, and assessed ...

Using eddy geopotential height to measure the western North Pacific subtropical high in a warming climate

The western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) is crucial to the East Asian summer climate, and geopotential height (H) is widely used to measure the WPNSH. However, a rapidly rising trend of H in the future is projected by the models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Diagnoses based on the hypsometric equation suggest that more than 80% of the ...

Changes in precipitation recycling over arid regions in the Northern Hemisphere

Changes of precipitation recycling (PR) in Northern Hemisphere from 1981 to 2010 are investigated using a water recycling model. The temporal and spatial characteristics of recycling in arid regions are analyzed. The results show that the regional precipitation recycling ratio (PRR) in arid regions is larger than in wet regions. PRR in arid regions has obvious seasonal variation, ...

The coherent large-scale circulation change between dry/wet years over central eastern China simulated by NCAR CAM5

This study evaluates the simulation of the coherent circulation structure correspond to the changes of mid-summer (July–August) rainfall over eastern China (30°–40° N, 110°–120° E) in high-resolution NCAR CAM5. Forced by historical sea surface temperatures (SSTs), the NCAR CAM5 reasonably reproduces coherent changes of temperature and large-scale circulations, corresponding to the ...

The urban energy balance of a lightweight low-rise neighborhood in Andacollo, Chile

Worldwide, the majority of rapidly growing neighborhoods are found in the Global South. They often exhibit different building construction and development patterns than the Global North, and urban climate research in many such neighborhoods has to date been sparse. This study presents local-scale observations of net radiation (Q * ) and sensible heat flux (Q H ) from a lightweight ...

Geometry of the hemispherical radiometric footprint over plant canopies

Radiometric measurements of hemispherical surface reflectance and long-wave irradiance are required to quantify the broadband albedo and the outgoing thermal radiation. These observations are typically integrated with eddy covariance measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes to characterize the surface energy budget. While the aerodynamic footprint has been widely ...

Validation of satellite daily rainfall estimates in complex terrain of Bali Island, Indonesia

Satellite rainfall products have different performances in different geographic regions under different physical and climatological conditions. In this study, the objective was to select the most reliable and accurate satellite rainfall products for specific, environmental conditions of Bali Island. The performances of four spatio-temporal satellite rainfall products, i.e., ...

Effect of land model ensemble versus coupled model ensemble on the simulation of precipitation climatology and variability

Through a series of model simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to three different land surface models, this study investigates the impacts of land model ensembles and coupled model ensemble on precipitation simulation. It is found that coupling an ensemble of land models to an atmospheric model has a very minor impact on the improvement of precipitation ...

Diurnal cycle of precipitation over Fujian Province during the pre-summer rainy season in southern China

Precipitation diurnal cycle over Fujian in the pre-summer rainy season has been revealed based on the hourly rain gauge data during 2009–2013. The precipitation amount (PA) over northwestern Fujian and most southeast coasts shows relatively small diurnal variability. This is in contrast to large diurnal variations in the mountainous areas. Regional differences in precipitation ...

Climate change impacts and potential benefits of heat-tolerant maize in South Asia

Maize is grown by millions of smallholder farmers in South Asia (SA) under diverse environments. The crop is grown in different seasons in a year with varying exposure to weather extremes, including high temperatures at critical growth stages which are expected to increase with climate change. This study assesses the impact of current and future heat stress on maize and the benefit ...

Characteristics of consecutive dry days variations in China

Consecutive dry days (CDDs) can serve as an effective measure of extreme precipitation and seasonal droughts. Using daily rain gauge data from 718 stations in China for the years 1961–2012, this paper documents the spatial and temporal characteristics of CDDs in the cold season (November to March) and the warm season (April to October). The results show that the long-term linear ...

Projections of changes of areal evapotranspiration for different land-use units in the Wielkopolska Region (Poland)

Strong global warming has been observed in the last three decades. Central Europe, including Poland, is not an exception. Moreover, climate projections for Poland foresee further warming as well as changes in the quantity as well as spatial and seasonal distribution of precipitation. This will result in changes in all elements of the water balance, including the areal ...

Cabin air temperature of parked vehicles in summer conditions: life-threatening environment for children and pets calculated by a dynamic model

In vehicles that are parked, no ventilation and/or air conditioning takes place. If a vehicle is exposed to direct solar radiation, an immediate temperature rise occurs. The high cabin air temperature can threaten children and animals that are left unattended in vehicles. In the USA, lethal heat strokes cause a mean death rate of 37 children per year. In addition, ...

Winter severity and snowiness and their multiannual variability in the Karkonosze Mountains and Jizera Mountains

This paper analyses winter severity and snow conditions in the Karkonosze Mountains and Jizera Mountains and examines their long-term trends. The analysis used modified comprehensive winter snowiness (WSW) and winter severity (WOW) indices as defined by Paczos (1982). An attempt was also made to determine the relationship between the WSW and WOW indices. Measurement data were ...

Simulation of tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific based on CMIP5 models

Based on the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5 (CMIP5) models, the tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the summers of 1965–2005 over the western North Pacific (WNP) is simulated by a TC dynamically downscaling system. In consideration of diversity among climate models, Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and equal-weighed model averaging (EMA) methods are applied to produce the ...

Robust intensification of hydroclimatic intensity over East Asia from multi-model ensemble regional projections

This study assesses the hydroclimatic response to global warming over East Asia from multi-model ensemble regional projections. Four different regional climate models (RCMs), namely, WRF, HadGEM3-RA, RegCM4, and GRIMs, are used for dynamical downscaling of the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model version 2–Atmosphere and Ocean (HadGEM2-AO) global projections forced by the ...

Climate change and the long-term viability of the World’s busiest heavy haul ice road

Climate models project that the northern high latitudes will warm at a rate in excess of the global mean. This will pose severe problems for Arctic and sub-Arctic infrastructure dependent on maintaining low temperatures for structural integrity. This is the case for the economically important Tibbitt to Contwoyto Winter Road (TCWR)—the world’s busiest heavy haul ice road, spanning ...

Multi-scale variation of the meridional movement of the western Pacific warm pool and its associated large-scale climate features

In this study, we investigated variation of the meridional movement of the western Pacific warm pool (WPWP). The variation was measured by the central latitude (Clat) of the WPWP on various time scales. Its relationships with global sea surface temperature (SST), precipitation, and atmospheric circulation were examined by applying several advanced statistical methods. First, the ...

Variability of UTCI index in South Warsaw depending on atmospheric circulation

The aim of the study is the assessment and analysis of the variability of human-bioclimatic conditions in southern part of Warsaw, depending on the atmospheric circulation in the long-term (1998–2015). The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI was applied to evaluate the human-bioclimatic conditions using meteorological data for the 12:00 UTC obtained from the WULS Ursynów weather ...

Influence of low ozone episodes on erythemal UV-B radiation in Austria

This study investigates the influence of low ozone episodes on UV-B radiation in Austria during the period 1999 to 2015. To this aim observations of total column ozone (TCO) in the Greater Alpine Region (Arosa, Switzerland; Hohenpeissenberg, Germany; Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; Sonnblick, Austria), and erythemal UV-B radiation, available from 12 sites of the Austrian UV-B ...

A comparison of long-term parallel measurements of sunshine duration obtained with a Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder and two automated sunshine sensors

In recent decades, automated sensors for sunshine duration (SD) measurements have been introduced in meteorological networks, thereby replacing traditional instruments, most prominently the Campbell-Stokes (CS) sunshine recorder. Parallel records of automated and traditional SD recording systems are rare. Nevertheless, such records are important to understand the ...

The role of atmospheric internal variability on the prediction skill of interannual North Pacific sea-surface temperatures

The sensitivity of the sea-surface temperature (SST) prediction skill to the atmospheric internal variability (weather noise) in the North Pacific (20∘–60∘N;120∘E–80∘W) on decadal timescales is examined using state-of-the-art Climate Forecasting System model version 2 (CFS) and a variation of CFS in an Interactive Ensemble approach (CFSIE), wherein six copies of atmospheric ...

Impacts of climate change on building energy demands in the intra-Americas region

It was recently reported a regional warming in the intra-Americas region where sea surface temperature exhibited increases exceeding 0.15 °C/decade and an accelerated air temperature rise that could impact building energy demands per capita (EDC). Reanalysis data is used herein to quantify the impacts of these warming trends on EDC. Results of the analysis depict a Southern Greater ...

Homogenization of Tianjin monthly near-surface wind speed using RHtestsV4 for 1951–2014

Historical Chinese surface meteorological records provided by the special fund for basic meteorological data from the National Meteorological Information Center (NMIC) were processed to produce accurate wind speed data. Monthly 2-min near-surface wind speeds from 13 observation stations in Tianjin covering 1951–2014 were homogenized using RHtestV4 combined with their metadata. ...