European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

http://link.springer.com/journal/228

List of Papers (Total 300)

An evaluation of four modes of low-dose anticoagulation during intermittent haemodialysis

Introduction Intensive care participants that need dialysis frequently suffer from increased risk of bleeding. Standard intermittent haemodialysis (SHD) includes anticoagulation to avoid clotting of the dialysis system. The aim of this study was to clarify which of four different low-dose anticoagulant modes was preferable in reducing the exposure to i.v. unfractionated heparin ...

Primary care physicians report high trust in and usefulness of the Stockholm drug and therapeutic committee’s list of recommended essential medicines (the ‘Wise List’)

Purpose Inappropriate use of medicines causes increased morbidity, mortality, adverse drug reactions, therapeutic failures and drug resistance as well as wastes valuable resources. Evidence-based cost-effective treatment recommendations of essential medicines are a way of avoiding these. We assessed primary care prescribers’ knowledge about and perceptions of an essential medicines ...

Influence of genetic co-factors on the population pharmacokinetic model for clopidogrel and its active thiol metabolite

Purpose A high interindividual variability is observed in the pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel, a widely used antiplatelet drug. In the present study, a joint parent-metabolite population pharmacokinetic model was developed to adequately describe observed concentrations of clopidogrel and its active thiol metabolite (H4). Methods The study included 63 patients undergoing elective ...

Who is willing to participate in low-risk pragmatic clinical trials without consent?

Purpose General notification offers a possible alternative to written informed consent for pragmatic randomized controlled trials (pRCTs). It involves patients being informed through brochures, posters, and letters that research is being conducted simultaneously to providing clinical care and that patients will be enrolled in pRCTs without study-specific consent. A previous survey ...

Challenges in translational drug research in neuropathic and inflammatory pain: the prerequisites for a new paradigm

Aim Despite an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms of nociception, existing analgesic drugs remain limited in terms of efficacy in chronic conditions, such as neuropathic pain. Here, we explore the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of neuropathic and inflammatory pain and discuss the prerequisites and opportunities to reduce attrition and high-failure rate in ...

Effect of CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, and CYP3A combined genotypes on tamoxifen metabolism

Background Tamoxifen is one of the cornerstones of endocrine therapy for breast cancer. Recently, the decreased activity CYP3A4*22 allele and the loss of function CYP3A5*3 allele have been described as potential factors that could help to explain the inter-patient variability in tamoxifen metabolism. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, and ...

Pharmacoepidemiology resources in Ireland—an introduction to pharmacy claims data

Introduction Administrative health data, such as pharmacy claims data, present a valuable resource for conducting pharmacoepidemiological and health services research. Often, data are available for whole populations allowing population level analyses. Moreover, their routine collection ensures that the data reflect health care utilisation in the real-world setting compared to data ...

Low-dose tolvaptan PK/PD: comparison of patients with hyponatremia due to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion to healthy adults

Purpose Tolvaptan (TLV) is indicated to treat hyponatremia due to syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormone (SIADH) in Europe. Treatment is to be initiated at 15 mg QD but post-approval reporting indicates increasing use of 7.5 mg as the starting dose. Physicians believe 7.5 mg is effective and has a lower incidence of overly rapid correction of serum sodium. Methods Single TLV ...

Metabolic acidosis caused by concomitant use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and flucloxacillin? A case report and a retrospective study

Purpose A patient was identified with severe metabolic acidosis, a high anion gap and 5-oxoproline accumulation, probably caused by the simultaneous use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and flucloxacillin. We wanted to investigate the necessity to control the interaction between both drugs with an automatic alert system. Methods To investigate the relevance of the interaction of ...

Population pharmacokinetics of haloperidol in terminally ill adult patients

Purpose Over 80% of the terminally ill patients experience delirium in their final days. In the treatment of delirium, haloperidol is the drug of choice. Very little is known about the pharmacokinetics of haloperidol in this patient population. We therefore designed a population pharmacokinetic study to gain more insight into the pharmacokinetics of haloperidol in terminally ill ...

Medical education in pharmacogenomics—results from a survey on pharmacogenetic knowledge in healthcare professionals within the European pharmacogenomics clinical implementation project Ubiquitous Pharmacogenomics (U-PGx)

Purpose Due to the diversity within Europe, the implementation of pharmacogenomic testing in clinical practice faces specific challenges. In the context of the European pharmacogenomics implementation project “Ubiquitous Pharmacogenomics” (U-PGx; funded by the European Commission), we studied the current educational background. Methods We developed a questionnaire including 29 ...

Factors associated with antithrombotic treatment decisions for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation in the Stockholm region after the introduction of NOACs

Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of patient characteristics such as age and stroke and bleeding risks on decisions for antithrombotic treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods This was a retrospective, population-based study including AF patients initiated with either warfarin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, or low-dose ...

Hospital electronic prescribing system implementation impact on discharge information communication and prescribing errors: a before and after study

Purpose The study aimed to test the hypothesis that hospital electronic prescribing and medicine administration system (HEPMA) implementation impacted patient discharge letter quality, nature and frequency of prescribing errors. Method A quasi experimental before and after retrospective case note review was conducted in one United Kingdom district general hospital. The total sample ...

Patterns of drug prescriptions in an orthogeriatric ward as compared to orthopaedic ward: results from the Trondheim Hip Fracture Trial—a randomised clinical trial

Purpose In the Trondheim Hip Fracture Trial, 397 home-dwelling patients with hip fractures were randomised to comprehensive geriatric care (CGC) in a geriatric ward or traditional orthopaedic care (OC). Patients in the CGC group had significantly better mobility and function 4 months after discharge. This study explores group differences in drug prescribing and possible ...

The impact of non-genetic and genetic factors on a stable warfarin dose in Thai patients

Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the contributions of non-genetic and genetic factors on the variability of stable warfarin doses in Thai patients. Methods A total of 250 Thai patients with stable warfarin doses were enrolled in the study. Demographics and clinical data, e.g., age, body mass index, indications for warfarin and concomitant medications, were ...

Pharmacist participation in hospital ward teams and hospital readmission rates among people with dementia: a randomized controlled trial

Purpose To assess whether comprehensive medication reviews conducted by clinical pharmacists as part of a healthcare team reduce drug-related hospital readmission rates among people with dementia or cognitive impairment. Methods This randomized controlled trial was carried out between January 9, 2012, and December 2, 2014. Patients aged ≥65 years with dementia or cognitive ...

Extrapyramidal symptoms after exposure to calcium channel blocker-flunarizine or cinnarizine

Purpose Flunarizine (fz) and cinnarizine (cz) have well-known extrapyramidal side effects (EPSEs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and occurrence time of cz- and fz-related EPSEs. Method Patients who took fz or cz for more than 1 month were identified from the longitudinal health insurance database 2005 and 2010. Excluded were patients with any of the underlying ...

Antidepressant use in suicides: a case-control study from the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, Italy, 2005–2014

Purpose To compare the use of antidepressant (AD) classes and compounds in individuals who committed suicide and in controls from the general population and to assess to what extent adherence and current use of different AD classes can affect the risk of committing suicide. Methods Individual data on suicide, diagnoses and AD use in Friuli Venezia Giulia from 2005 to 2014 were ...