Biology and Fertility of Soils

http://link.springer.com/journal/374

List of Papers (Total 65)

Crop residues exacerbate the negative effects of extreme flooding on soil quality

Extreme flood events are predicted to have a negative impact on soil quality. Currently, there is a lack of information about the effect of agricultural practices on soil functioning and microbial processes under these events. We hypothesized that the impact of flooding on soil quality will be exacerbated when crop residues are present in the soil as they will induce more extreme ...

Analysis of soil microbial communities based on amplicon sequencing of marker genes

The use of cultivation independent methods has revolutionized soil biology in the last decades. Most popular approaches are based on directly extracted DNA from soil and subsequent analysis of PCR-amplified marker genes by next-generation sequencing. While these high-throughput methods offer novel possibilities over cultivation-based approaches, several key points need to be ...

An assessment of factors controlling N2O and CO2 emissions from crop residues using different measurement approaches

Management of plant residues plays an important role in maintaining soil quality and nutrient availability for plants and microbes. However, there is considerable uncertainty regarding the factors controlling residue decomposition and their effects on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the soil. This uncertainty is created both by the complexity of the processes involved and ...

Different ways in which CO2 can be released during the turnover of roots in soil

Here, we investigated how root age and mode of death influenced their subsequent turnover and rate of C loss from soil. Young white-coloured and older pigmented roots of Cistus monspeliensis were excised (to simulate death by mechanical severance) or frozen (to simulate death by cell rupture) and immediately buried in soil. CO2 loss from soil was then measured over time. In a ...

Fate of straw- and root-derived carbon in a Swedish agricultural soil

To maximise carbon (C) storage in soils, understanding the fate of C originating from aboveground and belowground residues and their interaction with fertiliser under field conditions is critically important. The use of 13C natural abundance provides unique opportunities to separate both C sources. We investigated the effect of 16 years of C3 straw and C4 root input, with and ...

The type three secretion system facilitates migration of Burkholderia terrae BS001 in the mycosphere of two soil-borne fungi

The type three secretion system (T3SS) is known to play a critical role in several bacterial-eukaryotic cell interactions. Recent indirect evidence has also pointed to a role of this system in bacterial-fungal interactions in soil. In the current study, we examine if the T3SS of the fungal-interactive Burkholderia terrae strain BS001 can aid in the interaction of this bacterium ...

Invasive plants affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi abundance and species richness as well as the performance of native plants grown in invaded soils

We studied the effects of invasions by three plant species: Reynoutria japonica, Rudbeckia laciniata, and Solidago gigantea, on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities in habitats located within and outside river valleys. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, AMF abundance and species richness in soils were assessed in adjacent plots with invaders and native vegetation. We ...

Species-specific effects of plant invasions on activity, biomass, and composition of soil microbial communities

This study assessed the effects of Reynoutria japonica, Rudbeckia laciniata, and Solidago gigantea invading sites within and outside river valleys on activity, biomass, and composition of soil microbial communities. Microbial properties such as soil respiration, urease and arylsulfatase activities, microbial biomass (based on substrate-induced respiration, or SIR, and phospholipid ...

Biochar persistence, priming and microbial responses to pyrolysis temperature series

Biochar and its properties can be significantly altered according to how it is produced, and this has ramifications towards how biochar behaves once added to soil. We produced biochars from corncob and miscanthus straw via different methods (slow pyrolysis, hydrothermal and flash carbonization) and temperatures to assess how carbon cycling and soil microbial communities were ...

The mobility of nitrification inhibitors under simulated ruminant urine deposition and rainfall: a comparison between DCD and DMPP

Urine patches within pasture soils are hotspots for nitrogen (N) cycling and losses, where nitrification inhibitors (NI) offer a means of reducing such losses. Within urine influenced soil, more research has been conducted for dicyandiamide (DCD) than 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP). Differences in the efficacy of these NI are often ascribed to a greater mobility of DCD, ...

Organic matter composition and the protist and nematode communities around anecic earthworm burrows

By living in permanent burrows and incorporating organic detritus from the soil surface, anecic earthworms contribute to soil heterogeneity, but their impact is still under-studied in natural field conditions. We investigated the effects of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus centralis on fresh carbon (C) incorporation, soil organic matter composition, protists, and nematodes of a ...

Revisiting fertilisers and fertilisation strategies for improved nutrient uptake by plants

Meeting human needs within the ecological limits of our planet calls for continuous reflection on, and redesigning of, agricultural technologies and practices. Such technologies include fertilisers, the discovery and use of which have been one of the key factors for increasing crop yield, agricultural productivity and food security. Fertiliser use comes, however, at an ...

Effects of GM potato Modena on soil microbial activity and litter decomposition fall within the range of effects found for two conventional cultivars

Plant roots have a profound effect on soil microbial activity, particularly in the rhizosphere. Hence, it is important to understand the potential effects of genetically modified (GM) crops on soil microbial activity and related processes such as litter decomposition. In this study, we compared the effects of GM potato Modena on soil microbial activity and carbon (C) and nitrogen ...

Functional and compositional responses in soil microbial communities along two metal pollution gradients: does the level of historical pollution affect resistance against secondary stress?

We examined how the exposure to secondary stressors affected the functional and compositional responses of microbial communities along two metal pollution gradients in Polish forests and whether responses were influenced by the level of metal pollution. Basal respiration rate and community composition, as determined by 16S rRNA gene-based denaturing gradient analysis, were studied ...

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