Polar Biology

http://link.springer.com/journal/300

List of Papers (Total 210)

The relative contributions of biological and abiotic processes to carbon dynamics in subarctic sea ice

Knowledge on the relative effects of biological activity and precipitation/dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in influencing the air-ice CO2 exchange in sea-ice-covered season is currently lacking. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal occurrence of CaCO3 and other biogeochemical parameters in sea ice are still not well described. Here we investigated autotrophic and ...

Variability of polar scurvygrass Cochlearia groenlandica individual traits along a seabird influenced gradient across Spitsbergen tundra

In the resource-limited Arctic environment, vegetation developing near seabird colonies is exceptionally luxuriant. Nevertheless, there are very few detailed quantitative studies of any specific plant species responses to ornithogenic manuring. Therefore, we studied variability of polar scurvygrass Cochlearia groe nlandica individual biomass and leaf width along a seabird ...

Distribution patterns of polychaete fauna in an Arctic fjord (Hornsund, Spitsbergen)

Polychaetes are one of the most important groups of benthic organisms in marine ecosystems. They dominate on the Arctic shelf and play an important role in ecosystem functioning. This study focuses on the polychaete biodiversity and their distribution patterns in Hornsund, an open glacial fjord, in western Spitsbergen and provides important baseline data for future studies of ...

Effect of melting Antarctic sea ice on the fate of microbial communities studied in microcosms

Although algal growth in the iron-deficient Southern Ocean surface waters is generally low, there is considerable evidence that winter sea ice contains high amounts of iron and organic matter leading to ice-edge blooms during austral spring. We used field observations and ship-based microcosm experiments to study the effect of the seeding by sea ice microorganisms, and the ...

Visual prey availability and distribution of foraging little auks (Alle alle) in the shelf waters of West Spitsbergen

As diving seabirds use vision underwater, it is presumed they should preferentially select sites where their preferred food items are not only abundant but also clearly visible. To test this, we studied the optical properties of the seawater in the West Spitsbergen Shelf, in combination with zooplankton abundance in the feeding grounds of the planktivorous little auks from the ...

Temperature modulates intra-plant growth of Salix polaris from a high Arctic site (Svalbard)

Arctic ecosystems are important carbon sinks. Increasing temperatures in these regions might stimulate soil carbon release. Evidence suggests that deciduous shrubs might counteract these carbon losses because they positively respond to increasing temperature, but their role in ecosystem carbon budgets remains uncertain. Many studies dealing with large-scale tundra greening and ...

Distribution patterns of micro- and meso-zooplankton communities in sea ice regions of Lützow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica

In the Southern Ocean, zooplankton research has focused on krill and macro-zooplankton despite the high densities of micro- and meso-zooplankton. We investigated their community structure in relation to different sea ice conditions around Japan’s Syowa Station in Lützow-Holm Bay, in the summers of 2011 and 2012. Zooplankton samples were collected using vertical hauls (0–150 m), ...

Year-round acoustic detection of bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) in the Beaufort Sea relative to changing environmental conditions, 2008–2010

Bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) are pan-Arctic pinnipeds that are often seen in association with pack ice, and are known for their long, loud trills, produced underwater primarily in the spring. Acoustic recordings were collected from August 2008 to August 2010 at two locations and a single year (2008–2009) at a third location, in the western Beaufort Sea. Three recorders in ...

Germinating seeds or bulbils in 87 of 113 tested Arctic species indicate potential for ex situ seed bank storage

Arctic plant species are expected to lose range due to climate change. One approach to preserve the genetic and species diversity for the future is to store propagules in seed vaults. However, germinability of seeds is assumed to be low for Arctic species. We evaluated ex situ storage potential of 113 of the 161 native angiosperms of Svalbard by studying seed ripening and ...

Hydroid epifaunal communities in Arctic coastal waters (Svalbard): effects of substrate characteristics

The knowledge of cryptic epifaunal groups in the Arctic is far from complete mostly due to logistic difficulties. Only recently, advances in sample collection using SCUBA diving techniques have enabled to explore delicate hydroid fauna from shallow waters. This study is the first attempt to examine the relationship between substrate property (such as size of rock, morphological ...

Seasonality of occurrence and recruitment of Arctic marine benthic invertebrate larvae in relation to environmental variables

The Arctic system is one of the regions most influenced by ongoing global climate change, but there are still critical gaps in our knowledge regarding a substantial number of biological processes. This is especially true for processes taking place during the Arctic winter but also for seasonal processes, such as the dynamics of intra-annual meroplankton occurrence. Here, we report ...

Guano deposition and nutrient enrichment in the vicinity of planktivorous and piscivorous seabird colonies in Spitsbergen

The crucial role of seabirds in the enrichment of nutrient-poor polar terrestrial ecosystem is well-known. However, no studies have examined the potentially different impacts associated with piscivorous and planktivorous bird colonies on the surrounding tundra soils. Therefore, we compared guano deposition and physical and chemical parameters of soil near two large seabird ...

Potentially pathogenic yeast isolated from the throat and cloaca of an Arctic colonial seabird: the little auk (Alle alle)

Yeasts are a distinctive group of microfungi, but compared to other microorganisms, their ecological function and biodiversity are poorly known. This is especially so where polar ecosystems are concerned. With climate changes and increasing pollution levels in the Arctic, it can be anticipated that there will be an increase in the prevalence and diversity of fungi colonizing live ...

Culturable bacteria community development in postglacial soils of Ecology Glacier, King George Island, Antarctica

Glacier forelands are excellent sites in which to study microbial succession because conditions change rapidly in the emerging soil. Development of the bacterial community was studied along two transects on lateral moraines of Ecology Glacier, King George Island, by culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches (denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis). Environmental ...

The distribution of ciliates on Ecology Glacier (King George Island, Antarctica): relationships between species assemblages and environmental parameters

Ciliates are important consumers of pico- and nano-sized producers, are nutrient regenerators, and are an important food source for metazoans. To date, ecological research on ciliates has focused on marine ecosystems rather than on glacier habitats. This paper presents the first major study on ciliates from the Ecology Glacier (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). The objective of ...

Diversity of RuBisCO gene responsible for CO2 fixation in an Antarctic moss pillar

Antarctic “moss pillars” are lake-bottom biocenoses that are primarily comprised of aquatic mosses. The pillars consist of distinct redox-affected sections: oxidative exteriors and reductive interiors. Batteries of SSU rRNA genotypes of eukaryotes, eubacteria, and cyanobacteria, but no archaea, have been identified in these pillars. However, rRNA-based phylogenetic analysis ...

Genetic structure of declining chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarcticus) populations from South Shetland Islands (Antarctica)

Seabirds and their response to climate perturbations are important bioindicators of changes in Antarctic ecosystems. During 30 years of observations of two chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarcticus) colonies, one on King George Island and the other on Penguin Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica), the size of the breeding populations decreased by 84 and 41 %, respectively. We ...

Potential misidentifications of two climate indicator species of the marine arctic ecosystem: Calanus glacialis and C. finmarchicus

Calanoid copepods of the genus Calanus represent an important, nutrient-rich food source for a multitude of Arctic marine organisms. Although morphologically very similar, their life histories and ecological roles differ. Because the distribution of Calanus glacialis and C. finmarchicus corresponds to Arctic and Atlantic water masses, respectively, they are regularly used as ...

Patterns of magnesium content in Arctic bryozoan skeletons along a depth gradient

A growing body of evidence suggests that ocean acidification acting synergistically with ocean warming alters carbonate biomineralization in a variety of marine biota. Magnesium often substitutes for Ca in the calcite skeletons of marine invertebrates, increasing their solubility. The spatio-environmental distribution of Mg in marine invertebrates has seldom been studied, despite ...

Growth responses of Sphagnum hollows to a growing season lengthening manipulation in Alaskan Arctic tundra

The global increase in surface air temperature has produced an overall lengthening of the growing season by 3–5 days/decade in the Northern Hemisphere during the last 30 years. The direct impact of a longer growing season has not been well documented for Sphagnum moss communities in the Arctic. We hypothesized that an increase in the growing season length may be detrimental to ...

Influence of allochtonous nutrients delivered by colonial seabirds on soil collembolan communities on Spitsbergen

Despite a widespread recognition of the role of seabird colonies in the fertilization of nutrient-poor polar terrestrial ecosystems, qualitative and quantitative data documenting any consequential influence on soil invertebrate communities are still lacking. Therefore, we studied community structure and abundance of springtails (Collembola) in ornithogenic tundra near two large ...

First observation of krill spawning in the high Arctic Kongsfjorden, west Spitsbergen

In the past, two euphausiid species prevailed in the high Arctic Kongsfjorden, the arcto-boreal Thysanoessa inermis (Kroeyer, 1846) and Thysanoessa raschii (Sars. 1964). Both were considered expatriates from the Barents Sea or Norwegian Sea and non-reproductive due to low temperatures. The macro-zooplankton of the fjord has been studied as a component in an ecosystem context since ...

Tardigrada of the Revdalen (Spitsbergen) with the descriptions of two new species: Bryodelphax parvuspolaris (Heterotardigrada) and Isohypsibius coulsoni (Eutardigrada)

Despite a century long history of research, tardigrade fauna of the Svalbard Archipelago remains poorly known. In order to deepen our knowledge of tardigrade biodiversity in the Arctic, we collected forty-one moss and lichen samples from the Revdalen and on the south-east slopes of the Rotjesfjellet (Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago) in June 2010. In these samples, twenty-five ...