Polar Biology

http://link.springer.com/journal/300

List of Papers (Total 222)

Global change and Antarctic terrestrial biodiversity

Over the past 50 years, portions of Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands have experienced some of the most rapid increases in mean air temperatures on Earth. For example, recent data released by NASA have shown that mean annual air temperatures over the Western Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) have already increased by roughly 1°C and more than 2°C in the maritime Antarctic (e.g...

Microflorae of aquatic moss pillars in a freshwater lake, East Antarctica, based on fatty acid and 16S rRNA gene analyses

Aquatic mosses in the genera Bryum and Leptobryum form unique tower-like “moss pillars” underwater in some Antarctic lakes, in association with algae and cyanobacteria. These are communities with a two-layer structure comprising an oxidative exterior and reductive interior. Although habitats and photosynthetic properties of moss pillars have been reported, microfloral composition...

The first record of a rare marine tardigrade, Halobiotus crispae Kristensen, 1982 (Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae), from the Svalbard Archipelago

A rare marine tardigrade Halobiotus crispae Kristensen, 1982 was found abundant in intertidal flats at Josephbukta, Bellsund fiord, West Spitsbergen. This is the first record of this species from the Svalbard Archipelago. So far, the species has been found only in seven other localities in the northern hemisphere (between 56° and 69°N). The present record greatly extends the...

Water mass and bathymetric characteristics of polar cod habitat along the continental shelf and slope of the Beaufort and Chukchi seas

Relatively little is known about the distribution of fish in deep water (>200 m) in the Beaufort Sea. Data collected by an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler operated in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas in summer were examined for evidence of fish biomass detections between 18 and 400 m. The presence of fish in waters between 1 and 30 m was explored opportunistically with a non...

Geographic variation in cranial morphology of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Greenland and the eastern Canadian Arctic

We analyzed variation in nine non-metric and eight metric variables in the skulls of 132 narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from five localities in Greenland (Inglefield Bredning, Melville Bay, Uummannaq, Disko Bay, and Scoresby Sound) and one in the eastern Canadian Arctic (Eclipse Sound). Metric variables were used to compare the combined Disko Bay and Uummannaq samples with the...

Foraging by little auks in the distant marginal sea ice zone during the chick-rearing period

During the chick-rearing period, little auks Alle alle adopt a bimodal foraging strategy, alternating long trips with several short ones. It has been postulated that they reach more remote areas during long feeding trips than during short ones. However, the range of their foraging flights has never actually been measured. The aims of this study were to find the exact location of...

The adaptive significance of chromatophores in the Arctic under-ice amphipod Apherusa glacialis

Solar radiation is a crucial factor governing biological processes in polar habitats. Containing harmful ultraviolet radiation (UVR), it can pose a threat for organisms inhabiting surface waters of polar oceans. The present study investigated the physiological color change in the obligate sympagic amphipod Apherusa glacialis mediated by red-brown chromatophores, which cover the...

Organic carbon and mineral nutrient limitation of oxygen consumption, bacterial growth and efficiency in the Norwegian Sea

To evaluate the role of bacteria in the transformation of organic matter in subarctic waters, we investigated the effect of mineral nutrients (ammonia and phosphate) and organic carbon (glucose) enrichment on heterotrophic bacterial processes and community structure. Eight experiments were done in the Norwegian Sea during May and June 2008. The growth-limiting factor (carbon or...

Body size variation of a high-Arctic seabird: the dovekie (Alle alle)

Variation in body size among subpopulations of the same species may reflect phenotypic or genetic responses to environmental gradients or geographical distance. Here, we examine geographical variation in the body size of the dovekie (Alle alle), the most numerous high-Arctic seabird. Locations of dovekie breeding sites are largely restricted to the high-Arctic zone of the...

Seasonal microbial processes in a high-latitude fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard): I. Heterotrophic bacteria, picoplankton and nanoflagellates

Temporal dynamics of the microbial food web in the Barents Sea and adjacent water masses in the European Arctic are to a large extent unknown. Seasonal variation in stocks and production rates of heterotrophic bacteria and phototrophic and heterotrophic picoplankton and nanoflagellates was investigated in the upper 50 m of the high-latitude Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during six...

Microbial processes in a high-latitude fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard): II. Ciliates and dinoflagellates

The composition and ecological role of ciliates and dinoflagellates were investigated at one station in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during six consecutive field campaigns between March and December 2006. Total ciliate and dinoflagellate abundance mirrored the seasonal progression of phytoplankton, peaking with 5.8 × 104 cells l−1 in April at an average chlorophyll a concentration of...

Dynamics of bacterial community exposed to hydrocarbons and oleophilic fertilizer in high-Arctic intertidal beach

Exposure of pristine microbial environments to hydrocarbon contamination stimulates growth of the initially small fraction of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. Custom-made oleophilic fertilizers have been demonstrated to promote oil bioremediation by boosting this proliferation. In the present study, the temporal dynamics of the bacterial community structure and the...

The first demersal trawl survey of benthic fish and invertebrates in the Beaufort Sea since the late 1970s

This study represents the first demersal trawl survey of marine fishes and invertebrates in offshore waters of the Beaufort Sea since 1977. Species composition, distribution, and abundance of demersal fish and benthic invertebrates were assessed with standard methods and demersal trawl gear by the Alaska Fisheries Science Center. Fishes made up 6% of the total catch weight, and...

Investigating foraging utilization distribution of female New Zealand sea lions, Auckland Islands

Detrimental interactions between marine mammals and fisheries are increasing worldwide. The ability to manage these interactions requires the knowledge of where and how interactions occur and the effects they have on species. Many pinnipeds are central place foraging colonial breeders who are restricted in foraging range during breeding. Here, we use a utilization distribution...

The persistence of the snow petrel (Pagodroma nivea) in Dronning Maud Land (Antarctica) for over 37,000 years

Two samples of snow petrel Pagodroma nivea mumiyo (solidified stomach oil) from Heimefrontfjella (74°34′36″S, 11°13′24″W) in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, were radiocarbon dated at 37,400 ± 1,500 and 3,120 ± 70 years old (dates are corrected for the ‘reservoir effect’). The age of the older sample provides further evidence that snow petrel colonies have existed in the mountain...

Patterns of hydroid (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) species richness and distribution in an Arctic glaciated fjord

The consequences of global warming are particularly evident in high polar areas. Deglaciation phenomenon—negative mass balance of Svalbard glaciers and recession of tidal glaciers—results in landscape and shoreline change. These areas of very dynamic conditions are now open for primary colonists, among them hydroids, typical early colonists of the vacant substratum. This study...

Capture and blood sampling do not affect foraging behaviour, breeding success and return rate of a large seabird: the black-browed albatross

During the last decades, eco-physiological studies have usually relied on the collection of blood from wild organisms in order to obtain relevant physiological measures. However, accurate estimates of the impact of capture and blood collection on performances of Polar seabird species have rarely been conducted. We investigated for the first time the effects of a blood sampling...

Lycodes adolfi Nielsen and Fosså, 1993 (Teleostei: Zoarcidae) found in the Arctic Ocean

Adolf’s eelpout, Lycodes adolfi, was found at five bottom trawl stations in 2007–2009, on the slope towards the Sofia Deep north of Spitsbergen, at depths of 970–1,220 m and water temperatures below 0°C. Previously, the species has been known from cold and deep waters south of 74°N to both sides of Greenland and in the Norwegian Sea. The present material represents the first...

Post-breeding dispersal of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) nesting at Signy Island, South Orkney Islands

ARGOS satellite telemetry and Global Location Sensors (geolocators) were used to identify the moult locations and the winter foraging dispersal of Adélie penguins after they left their breeding colonies on Signy Island in the South Orkney Islands. Animals were tracked during the period December 2004 to October 2005. All birds displayed a similar pattern of migratory behaviour...

Seasonal variability of meio- and macrobenthic standing stocks and diversity in an Arctic fjord (Adventfjorden, Spitsbergen)

Strong environmental seasonality is a basic feature of the Arctic system, still there are few published records of the seasonal variability of the Arctic marine biota. This study examined the year-round seasonal changes of soft bottom macro- and meiobenthic standing stocks and diversity on a station located in an Arctic fjord (Adventfjorden, Spitsbergen). The seasonality observed...

Description of Scottnema lindsayae Timm, 1971 (Rhabditida: Cephalobidae) from Taylor Valley, Antarctica and its phylogenetic relationship

The endemic Antarctic nematode Scottnema lindsayae is described from specimens collected in Taylor Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Victoria Land. The recently collected material is compared with the original description and other subsequent descriptions of the species. A more complete scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of the species is presented. The phylogenetic position of...

Pigmentation and spectral absorbance in the deep-sea arctic amphipods Eurythenes gryllus and Anonyx sp.

As for many deep-sea animals, the red colouration of the two amphipods Eurythenes gryllus and Anonyx sp. has an important function providing camouflage, as the attenuation of the red wavelengths in seawater is higher than other colours within the visible range. Variation in colouration between different stages of colour intensity (related to size) is evident in both species. The...

Subcolony variation in phenology and breeding parameters in little auk Alle alle

In seabirds, variation in breeding phenology and success is often induced by macro- and mesoscale fluctuations in oceanographic conditions, which is recordable at the regional or colony scale. Variation in breeding parameters may also exist at the microscale—among discrete breeding aggregations and subcolonies. The aim of this study was to compare breeding phenology and...

The importance and distinctiveness of small-sized phytoplankton in the Magellan Straits

The distribution of summer phytoplankton across the Straits of Magellan (SOM) was studied with the aims of tracing differences among the distinct subregions of the area and contributing to the knowledge of its biodiversity. Samples collected at 25 stations were observed and counted in light microscopy. Selected samples were observed with transmission electron microscopy. The main...