Polar Biology

http://link.springer.com/journal/300

List of Papers (Total 210)

Microbial processes in a high-latitude fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard): II. Ciliates and dinoflagellates

The composition and ecological role of ciliates and dinoflagellates were investigated at one station in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during six consecutive field campaigns between March and December 2006. Total ciliate and dinoflagellate abundance mirrored the seasonal progression of phytoplankton, peaking with 5.8 × 104 cells l−1 in April at an average chlorophyll a concentration of 10 ...

Phytoplankton chemotaxonomy in waters around the Svalbard archipelago reveals high amounts of Chl b and presence of gyroxanthin-diester

Phytoplankton pigment signatures from a cruise in 2005 are herein presented and used as a chemotaxonomic tool for phytoplankton diversity in the Svalbard marine archipelago. Studies from these waters have until recently reported only a few groups of phytoplankton, and while this paper is the first to show that the diversity around Svalbard includes all major phytoplankton pigment ...

Dynamics of bacterial community exposed to hydrocarbons and oleophilic fertilizer in high-Arctic intertidal beach

Exposure of pristine microbial environments to hydrocarbon contamination stimulates growth of the initially small fraction of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. Custom-made oleophilic fertilizers have been demonstrated to promote oil bioremediation by boosting this proliferation. In the present study, the temporal dynamics of the bacterial community structure and the ...

Distribution patterns in the biomass of macrozoobenthic communities in Admiralty Bay (King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctic)

The distribution patterns of macrozoobenthic communities as shown by the biomass of the higher taxa were investigated in Admiralty Bay. Material was collected at depths ranging from 4 to 500 m (102 quantitative samples), representing the full depth range of this basin and including areas characterized by the different levels of glacial influence. Five community groups were ...

The first demersal trawl survey of benthic fish and invertebrates in the Beaufort Sea since the late 1970s

This study represents the first demersal trawl survey of marine fishes and invertebrates in offshore waters of the Beaufort Sea since 1977. Species composition, distribution, and abundance of demersal fish and benthic invertebrates were assessed with standard methods and demersal trawl gear by the Alaska Fisheries Science Center. Fishes made up 6% of the total catch weight, and ...

Investigating foraging utilization distribution of female New Zealand sea lions, Auckland Islands

Detrimental interactions between marine mammals and fisheries are increasing worldwide. The ability to manage these interactions requires the knowledge of where and how interactions occur and the effects they have on species. Many pinnipeds are central place foraging colonial breeders who are restricted in foraging range during breeding. Here, we use a utilization distribution ...

The persistence of the snow petrel (Pagodroma nivea) in Dronning Maud Land (Antarctica) for over 37,000 years

Two samples of snow petrel Pagodroma nivea mumiyo (solidified stomach oil) from Heimefrontfjella (74°34′36″S, 11°13′24″W) in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, were radiocarbon dated at 37,400 ± 1,500 and 3,120 ± 70 years old (dates are corrected for the ‘reservoir effect’). The age of the older sample provides further evidence that snow petrel colonies have existed in the mountain ...

The first record of a rare marine tardigrade, Halobiotus crispae Kristensen, 1982 (Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae), from the Svalbard Archipelago

A rare marine tardigrade Halobiotus crispae Kristensen, 1982 was found abundant in intertidal flats at Josephbukta, Bellsund fiord, West Spitsbergen. This is the first record of this species from the Svalbard Archipelago. So far, the species has been found only in seven other localities in the northern hemisphere (between 56° and 69°N). The present record greatly extends the known ...

Capture and blood sampling do not affect foraging behaviour, breeding success and return rate of a large seabird: the black-browed albatross

During the last decades, eco-physiological studies have usually relied on the collection of blood from wild organisms in order to obtain relevant physiological measures. However, accurate estimates of the impact of capture and blood collection on performances of Polar seabird species have rarely been conducted. We investigated for the first time the effects of a blood sampling ...

Lycodes adolfi Nielsen and Fosså, 1993 (Teleostei: Zoarcidae) found in the Arctic Ocean

Adolf’s eelpout, Lycodes adolfi, was found at five bottom trawl stations in 2007–2009, on the slope towards the Sofia Deep north of Spitsbergen, at depths of 970–1,220 m and water temperatures below 0°C. Previously, the species has been known from cold and deep waters south of 74°N to both sides of Greenland and in the Norwegian Sea. The present material represents the first ...

Distribution and abiotic influences on hypolithic microbial communities in an Antarctic Dry Valley

The Miers Valley within the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica supports abundant quartz and marble substrates for hypolithons—microbial colonists on the underside of these translucent rocks. Three physically distinct hypolithic community types have been identified: cyanobacteria dominated (Type I), fungus dominated (Type II) or moss dominated (Type III). The distribution of the ...

Description of Scottnema lindsayae Timm, 1971 (Rhabditida: Cephalobidae) from Taylor Valley, Antarctica and its phylogenetic relationship

The endemic Antarctic nematode Scottnema lindsayae is described from specimens collected in Taylor Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Victoria Land. The recently collected material is compared with the original description and other subsequent descriptions of the species. A more complete scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of the species is presented. The phylogenetic position of S. ...

Pigmentation and spectral absorbance in the deep-sea arctic amphipods Eurythenes gryllus and Anonyx sp.

As for many deep-sea animals, the red colouration of the two amphipods Eurythenes gryllus and Anonyx sp. has an important function providing camouflage, as the attenuation of the red wavelengths in seawater is higher than other colours within the visible range. Variation in colouration between different stages of colour intensity (related to size) is evident in both species. The ...

Subcolony variation in phenology and breeding parameters in little auk Alle alle

In seabirds, variation in breeding phenology and success is often induced by macro- and mesoscale fluctuations in oceanographic conditions, which is recordable at the regional or colony scale. Variation in breeding parameters may also exist at the microscale—among discrete breeding aggregations and subcolonies. The aim of this study was to compare breeding phenology and parameters ...

Body size variation of a high-Arctic seabird: the dovekie (Alle alle)

Variation in body size among subpopulations of the same species may reflect phenotypic or genetic responses to environmental gradients or geographical distance. Here, we examine geographical variation in the body size of the dovekie (Alle alle), the most numerous high-Arctic seabird. Locations of dovekie breeding sites are largely restricted to the high-Arctic zone of the Atlantic. ...

The importance and distinctiveness of small-sized phytoplankton in the Magellan Straits

The distribution of summer phytoplankton across the Straits of Magellan (SOM) was studied with the aims of tracing differences among the distinct subregions of the area and contributing to the knowledge of its biodiversity. Samples collected at 25 stations were observed and counted in light microscopy. Selected samples were observed with transmission electron microscopy. The main ...

Population dynamics of tundra voles in relation to configuration of willow thickets in southern arctic tundra

The areal extent and configuration of thickets of willow shrubs are currently changing in the Arctic both as an effect of global warming and changed browsing pressure of reindeer. These changes have been predicted to impact the distribution and abundance of wildlife species relying on willow thickets as habitat. We assessed the relation between variables quantifying willow thicket ...

From polar night to midnight sun: photoperiod, seal predation, and the diel vertical migrations of polar cod (Boreogadus saida) under landfast ice in the Arctic Ocean

The winter/spring vertical distributions of polar cod, copepods, and ringed seal were monitored at a 230-m station in ice-covered Franklin Bay. In daytime, polar cod of all sizes (7–95 g) formed a dense aggregation in the deep inverse thermocline (160–230 m, −1.0 to 0°C). From December (polar night) to April (18-h daylight), small polar cod <25 g migrated into the isothermal cold ...

Variability of protistan and bacterial communities in two Arctic fjords (Spitsbergen)

Krossfjorden and Kongsfjorden are Arctic fjords on the western side of Spitsbergen. These fjords share a common mouth to the open sea, and both are influenced by the input of sediment-rich glacial meltwater leading to decreased surface salinity, increased turbidity and decreased light penetration during summer. Earlier classical taxonomic studies had described the pelagic protistan ...

Diversity of the diatom genus Fragilariopsis in the Argentine Sea and Antarctic waters: morphology, distribution and abundance

Fragilariopsis species composition and abundance from the Argentine Sea and Antarctic waters were analyzed using light and electron microscopy. Twelve species (F. curta, F. cylindrus, F. kerguelensis, F. nana, F. obliquecostata, F. peragallii, F. pseudonana, F. rhombica, F. ritscheri, F. separanda, F. sublinearis and F. vanheurckii) are described and compared with samples from the ...

Colonisation of hard substrata along a channel system in the deep Greenland Sea

The colonisation of hard substrata (HS) by epibenthic megafauna was studied by photographic surveys along the Ardencaple Canyon in the deep western Greenland Sea in 2000. Seven transects at 2,700–3,200 m water depth showed generally low densities of dropstones, sunken wood, and other substrata including anthropogenic material (range: 2–11 HS km−1). Overall, 30 different taxa and ...

Polychaete fauna associated with holdfasts of the large brown alga Himantothallus grandifolius in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctic

The polychaete community associated with holdfasts of the brown alga Himantothallus grandifolius in Admiralty Bay has been studied. It is the first study of its kind in this area and only the second in the Antarctic. Samples were collected in the summer season of 1979/1980 from a depth range of 10–75 m. Seventy-eight species were found on 19 holdfasts. The community was dominated ...

Nitrogen transfer between herbivores and their forage species

Herbivores may increase the productivity of forage plants; however, this depends on the return of nutrients from faeces to the forage plants. The aim of this study was to test if nitrogen (N) from faeces is available to forage plants and whether the return of nutrients differs between plant species using 15N natural abundance in faeces and plant tissue. To investigate the effect of ...

Maximizing growth rate at low temperatures: RNA:DNA allocation strategies and life history traits of Arctic and temperate Daphnia

Many short-lived or univoltine organisms at high latitudes and altitudes face the challenge to complete their life-cycle within a brief growing season. This means that they need to maintain a high growth rate at low temperatures, and one way of doing this is to allocate limiting resources like phosphorus to RNA in order to maximize protein synthesis. We here explore the allocations ...