Polar Biology

http://link.springer.com/journal/300

List of Papers (Total 222)

Adaptation strategies of copepods (superfamily Centropagoidea) in the White Sea (66°N)

Seasonal dynamics of major biochemical features were studied for three abundant egg-diapausing copepods Acartia bifilosa, Centropages hamatus and Temora longicornis, in the White Sea (66°N), between June 2002 and September 2002. Dry weight (DW) and prosome length varied from 0.54 μg ind−1 and 0.163 ± 0.012 mm (A. bifilosa, CI) to 9.58 ± 0.72 μg ind−1 and 1.135 ± 0.167 mm (C...

Nitrogen supply effects on leaf dynamics and nutrient input into the soil of plant species in a sub-arctic tundra ecosystem

Global warming will lead to increased nitrogen supply in tundra ecosystems. How increased N supply affected leaf production, leaf turnover and dead leaf N input into the soil of Empetrum nigrum and Andromeda polifolia (evergreens), Eriophorum vaginatum (graminoid) and Betula nana (deciduous) in a sub-arctic tundra in northern Sweden between 2003 and 2007 was experimentally...

Endophytic fungi associated with the Antarctic grass Deschampsia antarctica Desv. (Poaceae)

Deschampsia antarctica Desv. (Poaceae) represents one of the two vascular plants that have colonized the Antarctic continent, which is usually exposed to extreme environmental conditions. In this work, we have characterized the endophytic fungi associated with the leaves of D. antarctica. Endophytic fungi were recovered from 91 individual plants from different points of Admiralty...

Response of benthic microbial communities to chitin enrichment: an in situ study in the deep Arctic Ocean

In situ enrichment experiments were carried out in the Arctic deep sea (Fram Strait region) to observe the response of benthic microbial communities to chitin supply. Chambers of a benthic lander were filled in July 2004 with deep-sea sediments enriched with 1.3–7.0 g m−2 of chitin and the effects of chitin enrichment were assessed on the microbial hydrolytic activity potential...

Non-invasive measurement of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in Upland Geese Chloephaga picta

Glucocorticoid (GC) hormones rise in response to stressors, including natural events including weather or predator presence, and human activities, such as hunting, scientific research or recreational visits. However, because blood sampling itself causes stress and is dangerous or even impossible in some wildlife species, feedback-free methods for GC determination are needed to...

Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the Arctic Ocean codfishes Arctogadus glacialis and Boreogadus saida reveal oriL and tRNA gene duplications

We have determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the codfishes Arctogadus glacialis and Boreogadus saida (Order Gadiformes, Family Gadidae). The 16,644 bp and 16,745 bp mtDNAs, respectively, contain the same set of 37 structural genes found in all vertebrates analyzed so far. The gene organization is conserved compared to other Gadidae species, but with one...

Aspects of the breeding biology of the southern rockhopper penguin Eudyptes c. chrysocome and new consideration on the intrinsic capacity of the A-egg

The rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome have recently been split into the northern E. moseleyi and the southern E. chrysocome rockhopper penguin. It is therefore crucial to have a comprehensive understanding of the biology of each species in order to develop appropriate conservation measures. We investigated the breeding biology of the southern rockhopper on New Island, in...

Ornamental colors reveal age in the king penguin

We investigated whether delayed plumage maturation occurred in king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Therefore we examined the relationships between age and sex on spectral properties and size of two colored plumage patches and a UV-reflective beak spot, using known-age cohorts. Unlike the colored patch on the breast, we found age differences in ear and beak coloration. These...

External nutrient inputs into terrestrial ecosystems of the Falkland Islands and the Maritime Antarctic region

Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems are nutrient-poor and depend for their functioning in part on external nutrients. However, little is known about the relative importance of various sources. We measured external mineral nutrient sources (wind blown material, precipitation and guano) at three locations, the cold temperate oceanic Falkland Islands (51°76′S), and the Maritime...

Food choice of Antarctic soil arthropods clarified by stable isotope signatures

Antarctic soil ecosystems are amongst the most simplified on Earth and include only few soil arthropod species, generally believed to be opportunistic omnivorous feeders. Using stable isotopic analyses, we investigated the food choice of two common and widely distributed Antarctic soil arthropod species using natural abundances of 13C and 15N and an isotope labelling study. In...

Distribution and abundance of the Southern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialoides

We reviewed published and unpublished literature to establish the status of the breeding distribution and abundance of Southern Fulmars Fulmarus glacialoides. The species breeds widely throughout the Antarctic and on peri-Antarctic islands. From breeding population data collated from 73 of these localities, we estimated the minimum global population to be about 400,000 breeding...

The sea anemone genus Actinostola Verrill 1883: variability and utility of traditional taxonomic features, and a re-description of Actinostola chilensis McMurrich 1904

Species of the genus Actinostola are known for high variability of features. Anatomy, histology and cnidae of type specimens of five species from South America and Antarctica originally described as members of Actinostola and one species of Stomphia were compared to specimens of Actinostola chilensis collected during this study. None of these traditionally used features clearly...

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