Behavioural Neurology

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bn/

List of Papers (Total 387)

Convulsive Pseudoseizures: A Review of Current Concepts

Convulsive pseudoseizures thought to represent psychiatric disease can usually be detected early if they are considered in the epileptologist's differential diagnosis. No single diagnostic criterion for this behavioural disorder is known to be pathognomonic. Epilepsy and all physiological explanations have to be thoroughly ruled out and positive evidence of relevant...

Contact with a Nurse Practitioner: A Short-Term Evaluation Study in Parkinson’s Disease and Dystonia

Forty patients with Parkinson's disease and 24 patients with dystonia took part in a study aiming to assess the value of access to and contact with a nurse practitioner over a 6 month period. Patients in each group were randomly allocated to “intervention” or “control” groups, which were matched on important variables. All patients completed a set of questionnaires relating to...

Modality Specific Cerebro-Cerebellar Activations in Verbal Working Memory: An fMRI Study

Verbal working memory (VWM) engages frontal and temporal/parietal circuits subserving the phonological loop, as well as, superior and inferior cerebellar regions which have projections from these neocortical areas. Different cerebro-cerebellar circuits may be engaged for integrating aurally- and visually-presented information for VWM. The present fMRI study investigated load (2...

Kindling: A Model for the Development of Tardive Dyskinesia?

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) from long-term neuroleptic treatment may be irreversible; therefore prevention has become a major concern. A controversial issue with regard to the clinical use of neuroleptic drugs is the possible influence on the development of TD of drug holidays. The major characteristics of kindling, theories of TD and the role of multiplicity in the development of TD...

Trends in Anti-Epileptic Drug Development

Several avenues are being explored in the development of new anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). For a number of years efforts have been directed towards compounds which may augment neuronal inhibition, and these efforts have resulted in the development of several valuable drugs. More recently, increased attention has been focused on the role which excitatory transmitters may play in...

Metabolic Characteristics of Oxcarbazepine (®Trileptal) and their Beneficial Implications for Enzyme Induction and Drug Interactions

Hepatic oxygenases of the cytochrome P-450 family play a major role in the clearance of various anti-epileptic drugs. These enzymes are susceptible both to induction and to inhibition. Phenytoin, carbamazepine (CBZ), primidone, and phenobarbitone, for instance, are potent enzyme inducers. Other drugs, such as chloramphenicol, propoxyphene, verapamil, and viloxazine, inhibit...

Cerebellar Structures and the Programming of Movement Sequences

Two patients with unilateral damage to the medial and lateral cerebellum were examined to determine whether local structures in the cerebellum are used to execute programmed movement sequences. Both patients performed a sequential tapping task which required the execution of either a single keystroke or of a sequence of three keystrokes. Movements executed with the contralateral...

Motor Habits in Visuo-manual Tracking: Manifestation of an Unconscious Short-Term Motor Memory?

Normal subjects were tested in short, repetitive trials of a tracking task, with an identical shape of target movement being used throughout one session. Analysis of the net error curves (pursuit minus target movement) revealed that subjects regularly exhibit a remoteness effect: neighbouring trials were more similar than distant ones. The effect is demonstrated to be stronger in...

Palinopsia: A Review of the Literature

The literature on palinopsia (visual perseveration) is reviewed, utilizing case reports of 46 patients who demonstrated this symptom. The most common etiologies for this symptom are space-occupying lesions, cerebral infarct, and seizure activity. The vast majority are due to central nervous system pathology occurring in the posterior (occipital or parieto-occipital) region, often...

Delusional Misidentification Incident in a Right Hemisphere Stroke Patient

We report a delusional misidentification incident lasting some hours in which a man who had suffered a right hemisphere stroke, HW, mistook a student for his daughter. Investigation of HW's face processing abilities showed unimpaired ability to recognize familiar faces and match facial expressions, but severe impairments of unfamiliar face matching both on the Benton test and a...

Posterior Fossa Tumours Presenting to Psychiatrists

Posterior fossa tumours may in their early stages give rise to dizziness, nausea and subjective unsteadiness. Such symptoms are commonly accompanied by psychological distress and are not always easy to diagnose. In the presence of a past psychiatric history, they may be wrongly interpreted as exacerbations of neurotic disorder. Two examples of this are given. Because of the...

Transient Stuttering in Catatonic Bipolar Patients

Two cases of transient stuttering occurring in association with catatonia and bipolar disorder are described. Affective decompensation has been associated with lateralized cerebral dysfunction, and it is hypothesized that in some bipolar catatonic patients a concomitant disorder of the lateralization of language function may lead to a variety of clinical presentations including...

Lithium Intoxication Presenting as a Mixed Misidentification Syndrome

A case is reported of lithium intoxication presenting with a mixed misidentification syndrome including features of Capgras syndrome. CT scanning showed cerebral atrophy, greater on the right, consistent with earlier evidence, suggesting that misidentification syndromes are more common with right hemisphere lesions.

Hallucinations and parkinsonian Motor Fluctuations

Thirty patients with Parkinson's disease experiencing hallucinations during long-term treatment were compared with 20 parkinsonian patients without hallucinations. No differences were found in the duration of disease, L-dopa treatment or disease severity between the two groups. The hallucinators however, were significantly older and more cognitively impaired. Visual...

A 54-Point Verbal-Performance IQ Discrepancy on the WISC-R: Cognitive Functioning of a Child from an Alternative School

Marked WISC-R verbal-performance discrepancy commonly leads to the assumption that such children have brain pathology or cognitive disorders. Children without brain dysfunction may also exhibit wide discrepancy, but a discrepancy score of 30 is assumed to occur in only 2% of the population. The actual investigation presents an 11-year-old child showing a 54-point discrepancy...

Crossed Aphasia in a Dextral without “Minor” Hemisphere Signs

A case of severe aphasia after right hemisphere stroke, confirmed by CT, in an unambiguously dextral patient is reported. The patient showed no limb apraxia, and performed well on a test of “closure” (Mooney faces). Extensive testing revealed no signs of visuo-spatial neglect. We conclude that “pure” crossed aphasia can occur in the absence of symptoms normally associated with...

Neuropsychology of Illiteracy

It is proposed that analysis of illiteracy can not only discern the influence of schooling background on neuropsychological test performance, but also contributes to obtaining a better understanding about the cerebral organization of cognitive activity. Brain organization of cognition, and cognitive sequelae of brain pathology in illiterates are reviewed. It is concluded that: (1...

Anatomic and Physiological Bases of Social Blushing: Speculations from Neurology and Psychology

Although a common and occasionally troubling reaction, social blushing has received little systematic attention from either medical or behavioral researchers. This article reviews what is known of the physiological and psychological processes that mediate social blushing, and speculates regarding the role of central mechanisms in the phenomenon. Blushing is characterized by the...

Voice Recognition Impairment in a Blind Capgras Patient

We report a case of a blind woman, M.N., who experienced the Capgras delusion. She thought that her pet cat had been replaced by a replica which was “ill-intentioned” towards her. M.N.'s case shows that the basis of the Capgras delusion cannot lie exclusively in damage to the visual system. However, testing of M.N.'s auditory recognition abilities revealed a deficit in the...

Is Disturbed Transfer of Learning in Callosal Agenesis due to a Disconnection Syndrome?

Disturbed intermanual transfer of tactile learning in callosal agenesis has been interpreted as a sign of disconnection syndrome. We observed this sign in one of four acallosal patients with a conventional form-board task, and tried to elucidate the nature of the deficit. The form-board performance of the patient with disturbed transfer of learning totally depended on motor skill...

Factorial Structure of Cognitive Activity Using a Neuropsychological Test Battery

A general neuropsychological test battery was assembled and individually given to a 98-subject sample, aged 11–12 years old. The battery included some basic and common tests routinely used in the evaluation of language, memory, spatial abilities, concept formation, and praxic abilities. Twenty-five different scores were calculated. A factor analysis with varimax rotation...

A selective agraphia of Kana

We report a patient who developed selective Kana (phonogram) agraphia following an infarct in the left middle frontal gyrus known as Exner's area. He had well-preserved ability for comprehension, reading, and writing Kanji (ideogram). Kana errors consisted of substitution with another letter while the number of target words was well preserved. It is suggested that a dominant...

Structural Correlates of Neurological Signs in Huntington’s Disease: A Quantitative Approach

Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetically transmitted disorder associated with atrophy of the basal ganglia. Studies of the neuroanatomical correlates of HD have focused primarily on the anterior areas of the basal ganglia and on establishing an association between structural changes resulting from the presence and course of the illness. The objective of the present study was to...