Behavioural Neurology

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bn/

List of Papers (Total 229)

Cerebellar Structures and the Programming of Movement Sequences

Two patients with unilateral damage to the medial and lateral cerebellum were examined to determine whether local structures in the cerebellum are used to execute programmed movement sequences. Both patients performed a sequential tapping task which required the execution of either a single keystroke or of a sequence of three keystrokes. Movements executed with the contralateral...

Delusional Misidentification Incident in a Right Hemisphere Stroke Patient

We report a delusional misidentification incident lasting some hours in which a man who had suffered a right hemisphere stroke, HW, mistook a student for his daughter. Investigation of HW's face processing abilities showed unimpaired ability to recognize familiar faces and match facial expressions, but severe impairments of unfamiliar face matching both on the Benton test and a...

Hallucinations and parkinsonian Motor Fluctuations

Thirty patients with Parkinson's disease experiencing hallucinations during long-term treatment were compared with 20 parkinsonian patients without hallucinations. No differences were found in the duration of disease, L-dopa treatment or disease severity between the two groups. The hallucinators however, were significantly older and more cognitively impaired. Visual...

A 54-Point Verbal-Performance IQ Discrepancy on the WISC-R: Cognitive Functioning of a Child from an Alternative School

Marked WISC-R verbal-performance discrepancy commonly leads to the assumption that such children have brain pathology or cognitive disorders. Children without brain dysfunction may also exhibit wide discrepancy, but a discrepancy score of 30 is assumed to occur in only 2% of the population. The actual investigation presents an 11-year-old child showing a 54-point discrepancy...

Anatomic and Physiological Bases of Social Blushing: Speculations from Neurology and Psychology

Although a common and occasionally troubling reaction, social blushing has received little systematic attention from either medical or behavioral researchers. This article reviews what is known of the physiological and psychological processes that mediate social blushing, and speculates regarding the role of central mechanisms in the phenomenon. Blushing is characterized by the...

Structural Correlates of Neurological Signs in Huntington’s Disease: A Quantitative Approach

Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetically transmitted disorder associated with atrophy of the basal ganglia. Studies of the neuroanatomical correlates of HD have focused primarily on the anterior areas of the basal ganglia and on establishing an association between structural changes resulting from the presence and course of the illness. The objective of the present study was to...

Spasmodic Torticollis—A Multicentre Study on Behavioural Aspects IV: Psychopathology

The GSI (General Symptom Index) of the Symptom Checklist 90 R (SCL 90 R) (as a global indicator of the severity of psychiatric symptoms) of 27% of the spasmodic torticollis (ST) sample fell outside the 95% range of the normal control group (two standard deviations). Patients with a higher GSI were younger, more functionally disabled and subject to higher psychosocial stress due...

Storage of Verbal Associations Is Sufficient to Activate the Left Medial Temporal Lobe

Neuroimaging studies have shown that memory encoding activates the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Many believe that these activations are related to novelty but it remains unproven which is critical - novelty detection or the rich associative encoding it triggers. We examined MTL activation during verbal associative encoding using functional magnetic resonance imaging. First...

Probing Cortical Sites of Antipsychotic Drug Action with in vivo Receptor Imaging

Imaging receptors using radioactive ligands has allowed direct determination of the sites of action of antipsychotic drugs. Initial studies relating antipsychotic drug efficacy to action at striatal dopamine D2-like receptors have recently been undermined. Developments in imaging extrastriatal dopamine D2-like receptors suggest rather that antagonism of these receptors in the...

Is the Finding of Obsessional Behaviour Relevant to the Differental Diagnosis of Vascular Dementia of the Binswanger Type?

Whilst carrying out a pilot study with a structured questionnaire examining the difference in insight between a group of patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and a second group with Vascular Dementia of the Binswanger Type, the incidental observation was made that the group of patients with Vascular Dementia of the Binswanger Type demonstrated more obsessional behaviour than the...

Opposed Left and Right Brain Hemisphere Contributions to Sexual Drive: A Multiple Lesion Case Analysis

Brain topographical studies of normal men have have shown that sexual excitation is asymmetric in the brain hemispheres. Group studies of patients with unilateral epileptic foci and other studies of patients with unilateral brain lesions have come to the same conclusion. The present study reviewed previously published single case reports of patients with frank hypo or...

Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology and Neuropsychological Changes

Narcolepsy is now recognized as a distinctive disorder with specific pathophysiology and neurochemical abnormalities. Findings on the role of the neuropeptide hypocretin are opening new avenues of research and new strategies for therapy. Recently, neuropsychological and electrophysiological studies have provided evidence for reduced memory performance on standard memory tests in...

Varieties of Alexia From Fusiform, Posterior Inferior Temporal and Posterior Occipital Gyrus Lesions

Reading impairments of three alexia patients, two pure alexia and one alexia with agraphia, due to different lesions were examined quantitatively, using Kanji (Japanese morphogram) words, Kana (Japanese phonetic writing) words and Kana nonwords. Kana nonword reading was impaired in all three patients, suggesting that widespread areas in the affected occipital and occipitotemporal...

Anatomy of the Episodic Buffer: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study in Patients with Dementia

In 2000 Baddeley proposed the existence of a new component of working memory, the episodic buffer, which should contribute to the on-line maintenance of integrated memory traces. The author assumed that this component should be critical for immediate recall of a short story that exceeds the capacity of the phonological store. Accordingly, patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD...

Dissociative Disturbance in Hangul-Hanja Reading after a Left Posterior Occipital Lesion

Since the Korean language has two distinct writing systems, phonogram (Hangul) and ideogram (Hanja: Chinese characters), alexia can present with dissociative disturbances in reading between the two systems. A 74-year-old right-handed man presented with a prominent reading impairment in Hangul with agraphia of both Hangul and Hanja after a left posterior occipital- parietal lesion...

Tactile Sensory Dysfunction in Children with ADHD

Objectives: While a group of children with ADHD may have normal behavioral responses to sensory stimuli, another group may be hyperreactive. The aim of this survey was studying association of tactile sensory responsivity with co-morbidity of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, subtypes of ADHD, and gender in children with ADHD.

Changes in Parahippocampal White Matter Integrity in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

In the present study, changes in the parahippocampal white matter (PWM), in the region that includes the perforant path, were investigated, in vivo, in 14 individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) compared to 14 elderly controls with no cognitive impairment (NCI). For this purpose, (1) volumetry; (2) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived measures of mean...

Rose-Colored Answers: Neuropsychological Deficits and Patient-Reported Outcomes after Stroke

Patient-reported, subjective outcomes are promoted as a standard for ethical, valid studies in many neurological disorders. Such outcomes are considered potentially more sensitive and specific to important therapeutic effects, and may be more linked to disability and disease-related life losses than conventional assessments of impairment (e.g. ability to walk, performance on...

Modality Specific Cerebro-Cerebellar Activations in Verbal Working Memory: An fMRI Study

Verbal working memory (VWM) engages frontal and temporal/parietal circuits subserving the phonological loop, as well as, superior and inferior cerebellar regions which have projections from these neocortical areas. Different cerebro-cerebellar circuits may be engaged for integrating aurally- and visually-presented information for VWM. The present fMRI study investigated load (2...

One Size Does Not Fit All: Face Emotion Processing Impairments in Semantic Dementia, Behavioural-Variant Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease Are Mediated by Distinct Cognitive Deficits

Patients with frontotemporal dementia (both behavioural variant [bvFTD] and semantic dementia [SD]) as well as those with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show deficits on tests of face emotion processing, yet the mechanisms underlying these deficits have rarely been explored. We compared groups of patients with bvFTD (n = 17), SD (n = 12) or AD (n = 20) to an age- and education-matched...

Acquired Dyslexia in Three Writing Systems: Study of a Portuguese-Japanese Bilingual Aphasic Patient

The Japanese language is represented by two different codes: syllabic and logographic while Portuguese employs an alphabetic writing system. Studies on bilingual Portuguese-Japanese individuals with acquired dyslexia therefore allow an investigation of the interaction between reading strategies and characteristics of three different writing codes. The aim of this study was to...

Degenerative Jargon Aphasia: Unusual Progression of Logopenic/Phonological Progressive Aphasia?

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) corresponds to the gradual degeneration of language which can occur as nonfluent/agrammatic PPA, semantic variant PPA or logopenic variant PPA. We describe the clinical evolution of a patient with PPA presenting jargon aphasia as a late feature. At the onset of the disease (ten years ago) the patient showed anomia and executive deficits, followed...

Single-Item and Associative Working Memory in Stroke Patients

In this study, we examined working memory performance of stroke patients. A previous study assessing amnesia patients found deficits on an associative working memory task, although standard neuropsychological working memory tests did not detect any deficits. We now examine whether this may be the case for stoke patients as well. The current task contained three conditions: one...