Behavioural Neurology

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bn/

List of Papers (Total 57)

Hallucinations and parkinsonian Motor Fluctuations

Thirty patients with Parkinson's disease experiencing hallucinations during long-term treatment were compared with 20 parkinsonian patients without hallucinations. No differences were found in the duration of disease, L-dopa treatment or disease severity between the two groups. The hallucinators however, were significantly older and more cognitively impaired. Visual...

Probing Cortical Sites of Antipsychotic Drug Action with in vivo Receptor Imaging

Imaging receptors using radioactive ligands has allowed direct determination of the sites of action of antipsychotic drugs. Initial studies relating antipsychotic drug efficacy to action at striatal dopamine D2-like receptors have recently been undermined. Developments in imaging extrastriatal dopamine D2-like receptors suggest rather that antagonism of these receptors in the...

Varieties of Alexia From Fusiform, Posterior Inferior Temporal and Posterior Occipital Gyrus Lesions

Reading impairments of three alexia patients, two pure alexia and one alexia with agraphia, due to different lesions were examined quantitatively, using Kanji (Japanese morphogram) words, Kana (Japanese phonetic writing) words and Kana nonwords. Kana nonword reading was impaired in all three patients, suggesting that widespread areas in the affected occipital and occipitotemporal...

Dissociative Disturbance in Hangul-Hanja Reading after a Left Posterior Occipital Lesion

Since the Korean language has two distinct writing systems, phonogram (Hangul) and ideogram (Hanja: Chinese characters), alexia can present with dissociative disturbances in reading between the two systems. A 74-year-old right-handed man presented with a prominent reading impairment in Hangul with agraphia of both Hangul and Hanja after a left posterior occipital- parietal lesion...

Tactile Sensory Dysfunction in Children with ADHD

Objectives: While a group of children with ADHD may have normal behavioral responses to sensory stimuli, another group may be hyperreactive. The aim of this survey was studying association of tactile sensory responsivity with co-morbidity of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, subtypes of ADHD, and gender in children with ADHD.

Changes in Parahippocampal White Matter Integrity in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

In the present study, changes in the parahippocampal white matter (PWM), in the region that includes the perforant path, were investigated, in vivo, in 14 individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) compared to 14 elderly controls with no cognitive impairment (NCI). For this purpose, (1) volumetry; (2) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived measures of mean...

Degenerative Jargon Aphasia: Unusual Progression of Logopenic/Phonological Progressive Aphasia?

Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) corresponds to the gradual degeneration of language which can occur as nonfluent/agrammatic PPA, semantic variant PPA or logopenic variant PPA. We describe the clinical evolution of a patient with PPA presenting jargon aphasia as a late feature. At the onset of the disease (ten years ago) the patient showed anomia and executive deficits, followed...

Ceftriaxone Treatment for Neuronal Deficits: A Histological and MEMRI Study in a Rat Model of Dementia with Lewy Bodies

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is characterized by neuronal deficits and α-synuclein inclusions in the brain. Ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic, has been suggested as a therapeutic agent in several neurodegenerative disorders for its abilities to counteract glutamate-mediated toxicity and to block α-synuclein polymerization. By using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance...

Inhibiting of GRASP65 Phosphorylation by DL-3-N-Butylphthalide Protects against Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via ERK Signaling

Background and Purpose. The aim of this study was to explore the role of DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) mice model. The involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway was also investigated. Methods. All mice were divided into five groups: sham-operated group, CIRI group, NBP pretreatment group, NBP...

Exploring the Neuroplastic Effects of Biofeedback Training on Smokers

Smoking and stress cooccur in different stages of a nicotine addiction cycle, affecting brain function and showing additive impact on different physiological responses. Resting-state functional connectivity has shown potential in identifying these alterations. Nicotine addiction has been associated with detrimental effects on functional integrity of the central nervous system...

Altered Behavior Associated with Damage to the Ventromedial Hypothalamus: A Distinctive Syndrome

An adult manifested a tetrad of neurobehavioral findings consisting of episodic rage, emotional lability, hyperphagia with obesity, and memory impairment with intellectual decline following surgical removal of a craniopharyngioma. Post-mortem investigation of the topography of the lesion as well as review of previously reported cases suggest that this tetrad represents a specific...

Use of Introspection in Scientific Psychological Research

The use of introspection is unavoidable even in psychological research on animals. Difficulties may arise from the absence of reliable introspective data; it is suggested that this could be the case for the so-called “reward system”. In other circumstances confusion comes from using introspection without being aware of it: speaking and thinking have for many years been considered...

The Psychomotor Disorders: Disorders of the Supervisory Mental Processes

Clinical evidence suggests that three major patterns of disturbance of the supervisory mental processes that regulate self-generated mental activity can occur, either alone or together, in a variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions. Psychomotor poverty involves a diminished ability to initiate activity. Psychomotor disorganization reflects impaired ability to select...

Confabulations Related to Tacit Awareness in Visual Neglect

The case of a man with left-sided visuospatial neglect is reported. His performance on a test for neglect, the “burning house test”, is analysed and compared with that of other patients referred to in the literature. We suggest that the confabulations neglect patients may produce when confronted with this test reflect the degree of preconscious awareness for left-sided features.

Do Young Schizophrenics with Recent Onset of Illness Show Evidence of Hypofrontality?

Young schizophrenic patients (n = 43), manic controls (n = 32), both groups diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria and on remission from acute illness, and 53 normal subjects were given a battery of neuropsychologic tests selected to assess different functional areas in the brain. Compared with normal controls, patient groups showed evidence of impaired...

Pathways and Patterns of Cell Loss in Verified Alzheimer’s Disease: A Factor and Cluster Analysis of Clinico-Pathological Subgroups

Thirty-seven patients with neuropathologically verified Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been studied prospectively. A principal components analysis of neuron numbers in cortical and subcortical areas revealed two variables: Variable I with high loadings for the hippocampo-parahippocampo-parietal neuron counts and Variable II with high loadings for coeruleo-frontal cell numbers...

Frontal Cognitive Function and Memory in Parkinson’s Disease: Toward a Distinction between Prospective and Declarative Memory Impairments?

Memory dysfunction is a frequent concomitant of Parkinson's disease (PD). Historically, two classes of hypotheses, focusing on different cognitive mechanisms, have been advanced to explain this memory impairment: one postulating retrieval deficits (common to several neurodegenerative disorders involving the basal ganglia), and the other postulating frontally mediated executive...

High Frequency Non-Invasive Stimulation Over the Spine: Effects on Mood and Mechanical Pain Tolerance in Normal Subjects

We investigated the effects of non-invasive high frequency (625Hz) stimulation over the spine on mechanical pain tolerance and subjective mood. Sixty healthy subjects were divided equally into three groups receiving either high intensity (250 V), low intensity (3–4 V) or sham electrical stimulation directly over the spinal cord for 30 minutes. Following high intensity stimulation...

Neuropsychology and Advances in Memory Function

Recent developments in the functional and neural bases of several aspects of memory are described including long term cortical memory storage, the transition from immediate to permanent memory mediated by medial temporal structures, working memory, memory retrieval, and implicit memory. These are linked to current data on the nature of anterograde and retrograde amnesia in the...

Laterality of Facial Expressions of Emotion: Universal and Culture-Specific Influences

Recent research indicates that (a) the perception and expression of facial emotion are lateralized to a great extent in the right hemisphere, and, (b) whereas facial expressions of emotion embody universal signals, culture-specific learning moderates the expression and interpretation of these emotions. In the present article, we review the literature on laterality and...

Decision-Making Impairments in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

A high percentage of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients show cognitive impairments in addition to the cardinal motor symptoms. These deficits primarily concern executive functions most probably linked to dysfunctions in prefrontal regions due to decreased dopaminergic transmission in fronto-striatal loops. To investigate possible associations between decision-making and executive...

Rapid Modulation of Distributed Brain Activity by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Human Motor Cortex

This paper reviews the effects of single and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimuli (rTMS) delivered to one cortical area and measured across distributed brain regions using electrophysiological measures (e.g. motor thresholds, motor evoked potentials, paired-pulse stimulation), functional neuroimaging (including EEG, PET and fMRI) and behavioural measures. Discussion is...

Neuropsychological Findings of Extrapontine Myelinolysis without Central Pontine Myelinolysis

Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) and extrapontine myelinolysis (EPM) are well recognized syndromes related to the rapid correction of hyponatremia, which are reported to show brain stem signs and various movement disorders. Cognitive dysfunction and neuropsychological findings, however, have seldom been reported. Cognitive manifestations in osmotic myelinolysis may have been...