Behavioural Neurology

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bn/

List of Papers (Total 229)

Behavioural Treatments for Tourette Syndrome: An Evidence-Based Review

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a disorder characterised by multiple motor and vocal tics and is frequently associated with behavioural problems. Tics are known to be affected by internal factors such as inner tension and external factors such as the surrounding environment. A number of behavioural treatments have been suggested to treat the symptoms of TS, in addition to...

Progressive Micrographia Shown in Horizontal, but not Vertical, Writing in Parkinson’s Disease

All published studies on micrographia, a diminution of letter size, examine handwriting in the horizontal direction. Writing horizontally typically requires increased wrist extension as handwriting progresses from left to right. Chinese characters, however, can be written not only horizontally from left to right, but also vertically from top to bottom. We examined the effect of...

Ceftriaxone Treatment for Neuronal Deficits: A Histological and MEMRI Study in a Rat Model of Dementia with Lewy Bodies

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is characterized by neuronal deficits and α-synuclein inclusions in the brain. Ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic, has been suggested as a therapeutic agent in several neurodegenerative disorders for its abilities to counteract glutamate-mediated toxicity and to block α-synuclein polymerization. By using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance...

Inhibiting of GRASP65 Phosphorylation by DL-3-N-Butylphthalide Protects against Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via ERK Signaling

Background and Purpose. The aim of this study was to explore the role of DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) mice model. The involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway was also investigated. Methods. All mice were divided into five groups: sham-operated group, CIRI group, NBP pretreatment group, NBP...

Exploring the Neuroplastic Effects of Biofeedback Training on Smokers

Smoking and stress cooccur in different stages of a nicotine addiction cycle, affecting brain function and showing additive impact on different physiological responses. Resting-state functional connectivity has shown potential in identifying these alterations. Nicotine addiction has been associated with detrimental effects on functional integrity of the central nervous system...

Altered Behavior Associated with Damage to the Ventromedial Hypothalamus: A Distinctive Syndrome

An adult manifested a tetrad of neurobehavioral findings consisting of episodic rage, emotional lability, hyperphagia with obesity, and memory impairment with intellectual decline following surgical removal of a craniopharyngioma. Post-mortem investigation of the topography of the lesion as well as review of previously reported cases suggest that this tetrad represents a specific...

Posterior Fossa Tumours Presenting to Psychiatrists

Posterior fossa tumours may in their early stages give rise to dizziness, nausea and subjective unsteadiness. Such symptoms are commonly accompanied by psychological distress and are not always easy to diagnose. In the presence of a past psychiatric history, they may be wrongly interpreted as exacerbations of neurotic disorder. Two examples of this are given. Because of the...

Do Some Cases of Anorexia Nervosa Reflect Underlying Autistic-Like Conditions?

In a sample of 51 teenagers with anorexia nervosa (AN)—which included 24 cases constituting the total population of AN cases born in 1970—several had shown social, communicative and behaviour patterns suggestive of autistic-like conditions as children, long before the onset of AN. One of the three boys in the AN group had Asperger syndrome. Three of the 48 girls had histories...

Aborting Seizures by Painful Stimulation

It has been well established that serious consequences may result from allowing seizures to continue. The opportunities for early interruption of seizures by medication is often restricted to medical personnel, leaving non-trained bystanders unable to intervene. We were able to interrupt seizures (including status epilepticus) by application of painful dorsiflexion. The mode of...

Use of Introspection in Scientific Psychological Research

The use of introspection is unavoidable even in psychological research on animals. Difficulties may arise from the absence of reliable introspective data; it is suggested that this could be the case for the so-called “reward system”. In other circumstances confusion comes from using introspection without being aware of it: speaking and thinking have for many years been considered...

A Case of Epilepsy and Psychosis in the Seventeenth Century

A seventeenth-century painter left an account of his seizures, trances and visions; in 1923 Freud commented on this “demonological neurosis” without discussing the seizures. Attention is drawn to the concurrence of epilepsy and psychosis in this early autobiographical source.

The Psychomotor Disorders: Disorders of the Supervisory Mental Processes

Clinical evidence suggests that three major patterns of disturbance of the supervisory mental processes that regulate self-generated mental activity can occur, either alone or together, in a variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions. Psychomotor poverty involves a diminished ability to initiate activity. Psychomotor disorganization reflects impaired ability to select...

Confabulations Related to Tacit Awareness in Visual Neglect

The case of a man with left-sided visuospatial neglect is reported. His performance on a test for neglect, the “burning house test”, is analysed and compared with that of other patients referred to in the literature. We suggest that the confabulations neglect patients may produce when confronted with this test reflect the degree of preconscious awareness for left-sided features.

Do Young Schizophrenics with Recent Onset of Illness Show Evidence of Hypofrontality?

Young schizophrenic patients (n = 43), manic controls (n = 32), both groups diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria and on remission from acute illness, and 53 normal subjects were given a battery of neuropsychologic tests selected to assess different functional areas in the brain. Compared with normal controls, patient groups showed evidence of impaired...

Is There a Place for Ipsilesional Eye Patching in Neglect Rehabilitation?

Neglect behavior of experimental animals with unilateral posterior cortical lesions improves with the placement of a second lesion in the contralesional superior colliculus or in the intercollicular commissure. Given that the retinotectal fibers are mainly crossed, it has been speculated that ipsilesional eye patching, by depriving the contralesional superior colliculus of its...

Pathways and Patterns of Cell Loss in Verified Alzheimer’s Disease: A Factor and Cluster Analysis of Clinico-Pathological Subgroups

Thirty-seven patients with neuropathologically verified Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been studied prospectively. A principal components analysis of neuron numbers in cortical and subcortical areas revealed two variables: Variable I with high loadings for the hippocampo-parahippocampo-parietal neuron counts and Variable II with high loadings for coeruleo-frontal cell numbers...

Contact with a Nurse Practitioner: A Short-Term Evaluation Study in Parkinson’s Disease and Dystonia

Forty patients with Parkinson's disease and 24 patients with dystonia took part in a study aiming to assess the value of access to and contact with a nurse practitioner over a 6 month period. Patients in each group were randomly allocated to “intervention” or “control” groups, which were matched on important variables. All patients completed a set of questionnaires relating to...

Frontal Cognitive Function and Memory in Parkinson’s Disease: Toward a Distinction between Prospective and Declarative Memory Impairments?

Memory dysfunction is a frequent concomitant of Parkinson's disease (PD). Historically, two classes of hypotheses, focusing on different cognitive mechanisms, have been advanced to explain this memory impairment: one postulating retrieval deficits (common to several neurodegenerative disorders involving the basal ganglia), and the other postulating frontally mediated executive...

High Frequency Non-Invasive Stimulation Over the Spine: Effects on Mood and Mechanical Pain Tolerance in Normal Subjects

We investigated the effects of non-invasive high frequency (625Hz) stimulation over the spine on mechanical pain tolerance and subjective mood. Sixty healthy subjects were divided equally into three groups receiving either high intensity (250 V), low intensity (3–4 V) or sham electrical stimulation directly over the spinal cord for 30 minutes. Following high intensity stimulation...

Neuropsychology and Advances in Memory Function

Recent developments in the functional and neural bases of several aspects of memory are described including long term cortical memory storage, the transition from immediate to permanent memory mediated by medial temporal structures, working memory, memory retrieval, and implicit memory. These are linked to current data on the nature of anterograde and retrograde amnesia in the...

Laterality of Facial Expressions of Emotion: Universal and Culture-Specific Influences

Recent research indicates that (a) the perception and expression of facial emotion are lateralized to a great extent in the right hemisphere, and, (b) whereas facial expressions of emotion embody universal signals, culture-specific learning moderates the expression and interpretation of these emotions. In the present article, we review the literature on laterality and...

Decision-Making Impairments in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

A high percentage of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients show cognitive impairments in addition to the cardinal motor symptoms. These deficits primarily concern executive functions most probably linked to dysfunctions in prefrontal regions due to decreased dopaminergic transmission in fronto-striatal loops. To investigate possible associations between decision-making and executive...

Rapid Modulation of Distributed Brain Activity by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Human Motor Cortex

This paper reviews the effects of single and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimuli (rTMS) delivered to one cortical area and measured across distributed brain regions using electrophysiological measures (e.g. motor thresholds, motor evoked potentials, paired-pulse stimulation), functional neuroimaging (including EEG, PET and fMRI) and behavioural measures. Discussion is...