Behavioural Neurology

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bn/

List of Papers (Total 406)

Structural Correlates of Neurological Signs in Huntington’s Disease: A Quantitative Approach

Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetically transmitted disorder associated with atrophy of the basal ganglia. Studies of the neuroanatomical correlates of HD have focused primarily on the anterior areas of the basal ganglia and on establishing an association between structural changes resulting from the presence and course of the illness. The objective of the present study was to...

Mini-Mental Parkinson: First Validation Study of a New Bedside Test Constructed for Parkinson’s Disease

We have developed a brief screening test aimed at identifying cognitive disorders in Parkinson’s disease. The Mini-Mental Parkinson derives from the Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein. It includes seven ordered subsections, with a total score of 32. A pilot study was conducted in 50 community-dwelling parkinsonian patients, in order to establish its metrological qualities...

Differential Classification of Dementia

In the absence of biological markers, dementia classification remains complex both in terms of characterization as well as early detection of the presence or absence of dementing symptoms, particularly in diseases with possible secondary dementia. An empirical, statistical approach using neuropsychological measures was therefore developed to distinguish demented from non-demented...

Memory and Cerebral Blood Flow in Cases of Transient Global Amnesia During and After the Attack

We administered various memory tests and neuroimaging examinations to four pure cases who met Hodges

Unilateral Temporal Lobe Damage and the Partial Kluver–Bucy Syndrome

The characteristic behavioural constellation of Kluver–Bucy syndrome is believed to be diagnostic of bilateral temporal lobe damage, even in the partial syndrome. The case described is that of a 54 year old woman with gross atrophy of her right temporal lobe following neurosurgery who developed hyperphagia (with driven food-seeking behaviour), placidity and hyposexuality. Her...

Spasmodic Torticollis—A Multicentre Study on Behavioural Aspects IV: Psychopathology

The GSI (General Symptom Index) of the Symptom Checklist 90 R (SCL 90 R) (as a global indicator of the severity of psychiatric symptoms) of 27% of the spasmodic torticollis (ST) sample fell outside the 95% range of the normal control group (two standard deviations). Patients with a higher GSI were younger, more functionally disabled and subject to higher psychosocial stress due...

Paroxysmal Compulsion to Handle Keys in a Computer Operator Due To Meningioma in the Left Supplementary Motor Area

We describe the case of a computer operator who experienced paroxysmal attacks several times in which she felt a compulsion to handle keys with her right hand or actually her right hand moved involuntarily in a key-handling rhythm. Cranial CT and MRI revealed a mass lesion in the left medial aspect of the frontal lobe (supplementary motor area). After the removal of this tumor...

Storage of Verbal Associations Is Sufficient to Activate the Left Medial Temporal Lobe

Neuroimaging studies have shown that memory encoding activates the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Many believe that these activations are related to novelty but it remains unproven which is critical - novelty detection or the rich associative encoding it triggers. We examined MTL activation during verbal associative encoding using functional magnetic resonance imaging. First...

Storage and Processing Working Memory Functions in Alzheimer-Type Dementia

A selective deterioration of working memory functions has been suggested as an explanation of the cognitive decay occurring in normal ageing as well as in Alzheimer-type dementia. Recent studies have highlighted that elderly people’s limitations in working memory functions may be better interpreted when analysing the specific characteristics of the cognitive process (i.e...

Probing Cortical Sites of Antipsychotic Drug Action with in vivo Receptor Imaging

Imaging receptors using radioactive ligands has allowed direct determination of the sites of action of antipsychotic drugs. Initial studies relating antipsychotic drug efficacy to action at striatal dopamine D2-like receptors have recently been undermined. Developments in imaging extrastriatal dopamine D2-like receptors suggest rather that antagonism of these receptors in the...

Subcortical Hypoperfusion following Surgery For Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage: Implications For Cognitive Performance?

The incidence and severity of cognitive deficits after surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and their relationship to aneurysm site remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of regional cerebral blood flow which exists in patients one year post-surgery and to identify whether different patterns exist which may be related to the type of...

Is the Finding of Obsessional Behaviour Relevant to the Differental Diagnosis of Vascular Dementia of the Binswanger Type?

Whilst carrying out a pilot study with a structured questionnaire examining the difference in insight between a group of patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and a second group with Vascular Dementia of the Binswanger Type, the incidental observation was made that the group of patients with Vascular Dementia of the Binswanger Type demonstrated more obsessional behaviour than the...

Prehension and Perception of Size in Left Visual Neglect

Right hemisphere damaged patients with and without left visual neglect, and age-matched controls had objects of various sizes presented within left or right body hemispace. Subjects were asked to estimate the objects’ sizes or to reach out and grasp them, in order to assess visual size processing in perceptual-experiential and action-based contexts respectively. No impairments of...

Impaired Initiation But Not Execution of Contralesional Saccades in Hemispatial Neglect

Patients with unilateral neglect are impaired at making saccades to contralesional targets. Whether this problem arises from a deficit in perception, in planning the saccade or in executing the eye movement or some combination thereof remains unclear. We measured several variables related to the initiation and execution of saccades in an experiment which crossed two factors...

Perceptual Organization Based Upon Spatial Relationships in Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is often accompanied by impaired object recognition, thereby reducing the ability to recognize common objects and familiar faces. Impaired recognition may stem from decreased efficacy in integrating visual information. Studies of perceptual abnormalities in AD indicate an impairment in organizing elements of the visual scene, thereby confusing components...

Opposed Left and Right Brain Hemisphere Contributions to Sexual Drive: A Multiple Lesion Case Analysis

Brain topographical studies of normal men have have shown that sexual excitation is asymmetric in the brain hemispheres. Group studies of patients with unilateral epileptic foci and other studies of patients with unilateral brain lesions have come to the same conclusion. The present study reviewed previously published single case reports of patients with frank hypo or...

Subtyping Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Neuropsychological Correlates

We administered neuropsychological measures considered sensitive to prefrontal dysfunction (both orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal neocortex) to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and control subjects. OCD subjects exhibited performance deficits, in comparison to community controls, on three measures sensitive to orbitofrontal neocortex dysfunction. Contrary to...

Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology and Neuropsychological Changes

Narcolepsy is now recognized as a distinctive disorder with specific pathophysiology and neurochemical abnormalities. Findings on the role of the neuropeptide hypocretin are opening new avenues of research and new strategies for therapy. Recently, neuropsychological and electrophysiological studies have provided evidence for reduced memory performance on standard memory tests in...

Varieties of Alexia From Fusiform, Posterior Inferior Temporal and Posterior Occipital Gyrus Lesions

Reading impairments of three alexia patients, two pure alexia and one alexia with agraphia, due to different lesions were examined quantitatively, using Kanji (Japanese morphogram) words, Kana (Japanese phonetic writing) words and Kana nonwords. Kana nonword reading was impaired in all three patients, suggesting that widespread areas in the affected occipital and occipitotemporal...

Parkinson’s Disease Protects Against Smoking?

Our aim was to estimate the pooled risk of current and former smoking for Parkinson’s disease (PD).We have reviewed all observational studies that evaluated the association between PD risk and smoking habit. Twenty six studies were identified: 21 case-control, 4 cohort and 1 cross-sectional. The cross-sectional study did not compare former with never smokers. These studies were...

Letter-By-Letter Reading: Natural Recovery and Response to Treatment

The present investigation provides a longitudinal study of an individual (RB) with acquired alexia following left posterior cerebral artery stroke. At initial testing, RB exhibited acquired alexia characterized by letter-by-letter (LBL) reading, mild anomic aphasia, and acquired agraphia. Repeated measures of reading accuracy and rate were collected for single words and text over...

A Foreign Speech Accent in a Case of Conversion Disorder

Objective: The aim of this paper is to report the psychiatric, neuroradiological and linguistic characteristics in a native speaker of Dutch who developed speech symptoms which strongly resemble Foreign Accent Syndrome. Background: Foreign Accent Syndrome is a rare speech production disorder in which the speech of a patient is perceived as foreign by speakers of the same speech...

Neuropharmacological Aspects of Cognitive Neurorehabilitation in Epilepsy

The role of CNS neuromodulators in cognitive neurorehabilitation can be related to two main issues: (1) the negative impact on cognition of drug categories prescribed for different neurologic symptoms, such as spasticity, extrapyramidal symptoms, or epileptic seizures; (2) their possible role in neuroprotection and amelioration of the cognitive status of the patient, especially...

Perceived Behavioral Changes in Early Multiple Sclerosis

Acquired behavioral changes have essentially been described in advanced multiple sclerosis (MS). The present study was designed to determine whether behavioral modifications specifically related to the MS pathological process could be identified in the initial phase of the disease, as compared to control patients with chronic, relapsing and progressive inflammatory disorders not...

Relationship between Object-Related Gestures and the Fractionated Object Knowledge System

The praxic semantic system comprises a conceptual knowledge system, which stores functional information about objects, and an action knowledge system, which stores information about the correct manipulation of objects. Moreover, mechanical problem solving abilities permit to take advantages from objects structure to use unfamiliar tools or discover alternative ways of using...