Behavioural Neurology

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bn/

List of Papers (Total 229)

Neuropsychological Findings of Extrapontine Myelinolysis without Central Pontine Myelinolysis

Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) and extrapontine myelinolysis (EPM) are well recognized syndromes related to the rapid correction of hyponatremia, which are reported to show brain stem signs and various movement disorders. Cognitive dysfunction and neuropsychological findings, however, have seldom been reported. Cognitive manifestations in osmotic myelinolysis may have been...

The Clinical Overlap between the Corticobasal Degeneration Syndrome and Other Diseases of the Frontotemporal Spectrum: Three Case Reports

The corticobasal degeneration syndrome has been suggested to be part of a complex of conditions (including the different subtypes of frontotemporal dementia and progressive supranuclear palsy), which reflect a spectrum of pathological substrates. This concept is supported by the frequent clinical overlap that can be observed among patients diagnosed with these conditions. We...

Persistent Visual Aura following Catheter Ablation in a Patient with WPW Syndrome

We report a patient who has had persistent visual disturbances since she underwent catheter ablation to treat her Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. We examined her visual symptoms carefully and quantitatively by means of our newly developed method combining image-processing and psychophysics. We first simulated the patient’s visual symptoms using image-processing techniques...

Right Hemisphere Involvement in Non-Fluent Primary Progressive Aphasia

We described a 56-years-old man with a diagnosis of “non-fluent primary progressive aphasia” (NfPPA). An accurate neuropsychological, neurological and neuroimaging evaluation was performed in order to assess clinical and behavioural features of the patient.

Effects of Decompressive Surgery on Prognosis and Cognitive Deficits in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a serious viral infection with a high rate of mortality. The most commonly seen complications are behavioral changes, seizures and memory deficits. We report the case of a 37-year-old man with HSE in the right temporal lobe and a severe midline shift who was treated with acyclovir. The patient underwent anterior temporal lobe resection...

Assessment of Behavioural Markers of Autonoetic Consciousness during Episodic Autobiographical Memory Retrieval: A Preliminary Analysis

There is ongoing theoretical debate regarding episodic memory and how it can be accurately measured, in particular if the focus should be content-based recall of episodic details or something more experiential involving the subjective capacity to mentally travel back in time and “re-live” aspects of the original event. The autonoetic subscale of the Episodic Autobiographical...

Recognition Memory and Prefrontal Cortex: Dissociating Recollection and Familiarity Processes Using rTMS

Recognition memory can be supported by both the assessment of the familiarity of an item and by the recollection of the context in which an item was encountered. The neural substrates of these memory processes are controversial. To address these issues we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of...

Simultaneously Cooperative, but Serially Antagonistic: A Neuropsychological Study of Diagonistic Dyspraxia in a Case of Marchiafava-Bignami Disease

We describe a patient with Marchiafava-Bignami disease who showed, in addition to signs of callosal interruption, a peculiar form of diagonistic dyspraxia. Unlike the typical diagonistic dyspraxia, both of the patient’s hands could simultaneously cooperate in a sequence of bimanual actions. More specifically, his right hand could start a commanded action with the cooperation of...

Visual Agnosia for Line Drawings and Silhouettes without Apparent Impairment of Real-Object Recognition: A Case Report

We report on a patient with visual agnosia for line drawings and silhouette pictures following cerebral infarction in the region of the right posterior cerebral artery. The patient retained the ability to recognize real objects and their photographs, and could precisely copy line drawings of objects that she could not name. This case report highlights the importance of clinicians...

Epilepsy, Consciousness and Neurostimulation

Consciousness is often disrupted in epilepsy. This may involve altered responsiveness or changes in awareness of self and subjective experiences. Subcortical arousal systems and paralimbic fronto-parietal association cortices are thought to underpin current concepts of consciousness. The Network Inhibition Hypothesis proposes a common neuroanatomical substrate for impaired...

Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome

Introduction: Patients with Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome (PTCS) may complain of difficulty in thinking or concentrating; however there has been little formal cognitive evaluation in this population.

The Causes and Consequences of Transient Epileptic Amnesia

Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is a recently recognised syndrome of epilepsy in which the principle manifestation of seizures is recurrent episodes of isolated memory loss. In this article, we describe the clinical and cognitive profile of this emerging syndrome, and present new data that provide at most weak support for its proposed relationship to cerebrovascular disease...

Therapy Efficacy in Chronic Aphasia

There is good evidence that aphasia therapy is effective if sufficiently prolonged or intensive and that chronic aphasic individuals can also benefit from therapy, but data on chronic aphasia are scanty.

Early Signs of Memory Impairment among Multiple Sclerosis Patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome

The study investigates primary and secondary verbal memory and motor/executive functions (response inhibition and strategy shifting ability) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). We studied 44 CIS patients and compared them to 49 patients with relapsing remitting MS (RR-MS) displaying mild disability and to a large cohort of age- and...

Toward an Executive Origin for Acquired Phonological Dyslexia: A Case of Specific Deficit of Context-Sensitive Grapheme-to-Phoneme Conversion Rules

Phonological dyslexia is a written language disorder characterized by poor reading of nonwords when compared with relatively preserved ability in reading real words. In this study, we report the case of FG, a 74-year-old man with phonological dyslexia. The nature and origin of his reading impairment were assessed using tasks involving activation and explicit manipulation of...

Cervical Dystonia: From Pathophysiology to Pharmacotherapy

Background: Dystonia is a chronic disorder characterised by an aberration in the control of movement. Sustained co-contraction of opposing agonist and antagonist muscles can cause repetitive and twisting movements, or abnormal postures. Cervical dystonia (CD), often referred to as spasmodic torticollis, is a type of focal dystonia involving the muscles of the neck and sometimes...

The Pathogenesis of Necroptosis-Dependent Signaling Pathway in Cerebral Ischemic Disease

Necroptosis is the best-described form of regulated necrosis at present, which is widely recognized as a component of caspase-independent cell death mediated by the concerted action of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3). Mixed-lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) was phosphorylated by RIPK3 at the threonine 357 and serine...

Quality of Life in Patients with Dementia with Lewy Bodies

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a complex, multisymptom disorder. When making decisions regarding the treatment of DLB, the patient’s quality of life (QoL) should always be the main consideration. To our knowledge, this is the first review article focusing on the QoL in DLB patients. We searched the PubMed database using the keywords “quality of life” and “dementia with Lewy...

Hand Dexterity Impairment in Patients with Cervical Myelopathy: A New Quantitative Assessment Using a Natural Prehension Movement

Cervical myelopathy (CM) caused by spinal cord compression can lead to reduced hand dexterity. However, except for the 10 sec grip-and-release test, there is no objective assessment system for hand dexterity in patients with CM. Therefore, we evaluated the hand dexterity impairment of patients with CM objectively by asking them to perform a natural prehension movement. Twenty...

COGEVIS: A New Scale to Evaluate Cognition in Patients with Visual Deficiency

We evaluated the cognitive status of visually impaired patients referred to low vision rehabilitation (LVR) based on a standard cognitive battery and a new evaluation tool, named the COGEVIS, which can be used to assess patients with severe visual deficits. We studied patients aged 60 and above, referred to the LVR Hospital in Paris. Neurological and cognitive evaluations were...

COGEVIS: A New Scale to Evaluate Cognition in Patients with Visual Deficiency

We evaluated the cognitive status of visually impaired patients referred to low vision rehabilitation (LVR) based on a standard cognitive battery and a new evaluation tool, named the COGEVIS, which can be used to assess patients with severe visual deficits. We studied patients aged 60 and above, referred to the LVR Hospital in Paris. Neurological and cognitive evaluations were...