Behavioural Neurology

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bn/

List of Papers (Total 325)

The Categorical Organization of Semantic and Lexical Knowledge in the Brain

In recent years several papers have shown that different verbal and non-verbal semantic categories can be selectively disrupted by brain damage and that consistent anatomical localizations correspond to each category-specific semantic disorder. This paper aims to suggest that the brain regions typically damaged in a given type of category-specific semantic disorder might be...

Impulse Regulation in Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa: Some Formulations

Empirical observations imply that impulsivity is specifically associated with poor prognosis in eating disorders. The present paper cites studies suggesting that this factor is predominantly associated with the bulimic pattern of eating disturbance, while “restriction” may be associated rather with hypercontrol of behaviour. Further evidence is cited suggesting that the...

Long Term Neuropsychological Follow-Up in Patients With Herpes Simplex Encephalitis and Predominantly Left-Sided Lesions

Five patients with predominantly dominant cerebral hemisphere lesions due to herpes simplex encephalitis are described. Verbal amnesia was the main deficit but amnesic aphasia sometimes associated with impairment of remote memory also occurred. Semantic and episodic memory deficits were also explored in one case and the role of the right cerebral hemisphere in facilitating...

Posterior Fossa Tumours Presenting to Psychiatrists

Posterior fossa tumours may in their early stages give rise to dizziness, nausea and subjective unsteadiness. Such symptoms are commonly accompanied by psychological distress and are not always easy to diagnose. In the presence of a past psychiatric history, they may be wrongly interpreted as exacerbations of neurotic disorder. Two examples of this are given. Because of the...

Do Some Cases of Anorexia Nervosa Reflect Underlying Autistic-Like Conditions?

In a sample of 51 teenagers with anorexia nervosa (AN)—which included 24 cases constituting the total population of AN cases born in 1970—several had shown social, communicative and behaviour patterns suggestive of autistic-like conditions as children, long before the onset of AN. One of the three boys in the AN group had Asperger syndrome. Three of the 48 girls had histories...

Aborting Seizures by Painful Stimulation

It has been well established that serious consequences may result from allowing seizures to continue. The opportunities for early interruption of seizures by medication is often restricted to medical personnel, leaving non-trained bystanders unable to intervene. We were able to interrupt seizures (including status epilepticus) by application of painful dorsiflexion. The mode of...

Use of Introspection in Scientific Psychological Research

The use of introspection is unavoidable even in psychological research on animals. Difficulties may arise from the absence of reliable introspective data; it is suggested that this could be the case for the so-called “reward system”. In other circumstances confusion comes from using introspection without being aware of it: speaking and thinking have for many years been considered...

A Case of Epilepsy and Psychosis in the Seventeenth Century

A seventeenth-century painter left an account of his seizures, trances and visions; in 1923 Freud commented on this “demonological neurosis” without discussing the seizures. Attention is drawn to the concurrence of epilepsy and psychosis in this early autobiographical source.

Crossed Aphasia in a Dextral without “Minor” Hemisphere Signs

A case of severe aphasia after right hemisphere stroke, confirmed by CT, in an unambiguously dextral patient is reported. The patient showed no limb apraxia, and performed well on a test of “closure” (Mooney faces). Extensive testing revealed no signs of visuo-spatial neglect. We conclude that “pure” crossed aphasia can occur in the absence of symptoms normally associated with...

The Psychomotor Disorders: Disorders of the Supervisory Mental Processes

Clinical evidence suggests that three major patterns of disturbance of the supervisory mental processes that regulate self-generated mental activity can occur, either alone or together, in a variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions. Psychomotor poverty involves a diminished ability to initiate activity. Psychomotor disorganization reflects impaired ability to select...

Anxiety and Depression in Parkinson’s Disease

We examined a consecutive series of 40 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) for the presence of anxiety. We found that 40 % met DSM-III criteria for generalized anxiety disorders, and half of them also met criteria for either major depression or minor depression. While depression was associated with long duration of illness and more severe cognitive and physical impairments...

Confabulations Related to Tacit Awareness in Visual Neglect

The case of a man with left-sided visuospatial neglect is reported. His performance on a test for neglect, the “burning house test”, is analysed and compared with that of other patients referred to in the literature. We suggest that the confabulations neglect patients may produce when confronted with this test reflect the degree of preconscious awareness for left-sided features.

Do Young Schizophrenics with Recent Onset of Illness Show Evidence of Hypofrontality?

Young schizophrenic patients (n = 43), manic controls (n = 32), both groups diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria and on remission from acute illness, and 53 normal subjects were given a battery of neuropsychologic tests selected to assess different functional areas in the brain. Compared with normal controls, patient groups showed evidence of impaired...

Can Tactile Neglect Occur at an Intra-Limb Level? Vibrotactile Reaction Times in Patients with Right Hemisphere Damage

Visual reaction time (RT) studies on patients with right hemisphere (RH) damage have demonstrated that the attentional imbalance to stimuli occupying left and right positions exists even within the “intact” ipsilesional hemifield. The purpose of the present study was to test whether such patients might also exhibit relative left-sided impairments in the tactile modality, where...

Progressive Perceptual-Motor Impairment without Generalized Dementia: A Type of Cortical Degenerative Syndrome

A patient developed slowly progressive clumsiness of both upper extremities with associated impainnent of daily activities without loss of muscle strength or abnormal muscle tone. Her sensory function was normal in the primary modalities but was impaired in the discriminative tasks. A single photon emission computed tomography using 123I-iodoamphetamine showed the areas with...

Is There a Place for Ipsilesional Eye Patching in Neglect Rehabilitation?

Neglect behavior of experimental animals with unilateral posterior cortical lesions improves with the placement of a second lesion in the contralesional superior colliculus or in the intercollicular commissure. Given that the retinotectal fibers are mainly crossed, it has been speculated that ipsilesional eye patching, by depriving the contralesional superior colliculus of its...

Pathways and Patterns of Cell Loss in Verified Alzheimer’s Disease: A Factor and Cluster Analysis of Clinico-Pathological Subgroups

Thirty-seven patients with neuropathologically verified Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been studied prospectively. A principal components analysis of neuron numbers in cortical and subcortical areas revealed two variables: Variable I with high loadings for the hippocampo-parahippocampo-parietal neuron counts and Variable II with high loadings for coeruleo-frontal cell numbers...

Contact with a Nurse Practitioner: A Short-Term Evaluation Study in Parkinson’s Disease and Dystonia

Forty patients with Parkinson's disease and 24 patients with dystonia took part in a study aiming to assess the value of access to and contact with a nurse practitioner over a 6 month period. Patients in each group were randomly allocated to “intervention” or “control” groups, which were matched on important variables. All patients completed a set of questionnaires relating to...

Effects of Simultaneously Applied Short-Term Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Tactile Stimulation on Memory and Affective Behaviour of Patients with Probable Alzheimer’s Disease

In previous studies beneficial effects of peripheral electrical or tactile nerve stimulation were observed on memory and affective behaviour in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, it was investigated whether electrical and tactile stimulation applied simultaneously to Alzheimer patients would exceed the effects which were observed following treatment...

Mini-Mental Parkinson: First Validation Study of a New Bedside Test Constructed for Parkinson’s Disease

We have developed a brief screening test aimed at identifying cognitive disorders in Parkinson’s disease. The Mini-Mental Parkinson derives from the Mini-Mental State Examination of Folstein. It includes seven ordered subsections, with a total score of 32. A pilot study was conducted in 50 community-dwelling parkinsonian patients, in order to establish its metrological qualities...

Computed Tomographic Density Changes in Schizophrenic and Manic Nigerian Subjects

There is paucity of computed tomography (CT) studies from developing countries, where schizophrenia is said to have more favourable outcome and present predominantly with positive symptoms. We highlight the densitometric analysis of frontal and parietal areas, assessed by tracing of regions of interest on the slice that passes through the foramen of Monro and the pineal gland...

Frontal Cognitive Function and Memory in Parkinson’s Disease: Toward a Distinction between Prospective and Declarative Memory Impairments?

Memory dysfunction is a frequent concomitant of Parkinson's disease (PD). Historically, two classes of hypotheses, focusing on different cognitive mechanisms, have been advanced to explain this memory impairment: one postulating retrieval deficits (common to several neurodegenerative disorders involving the basal ganglia), and the other postulating frontally mediated executive...

Facial Expressions and Parkinson’s Disease

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and matched control subjects were photographed posing a range of facial expressions. The same subjects were later asked to identify the posed expressions of the other subjects. They were also asked to rate the quality of expressions posed by the control subjects after being told what each expression was. Expressions posed by healthy control...

Somatosensory Evoked Potentials and Dopaminergic Responsiveness to Apomorphine and Levodopa in Parkinsonian Patients

Short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) were recorded from 10 parkinsonian patients in ‘off’ and ‘on’ states induced by apomorphine and levodopa. The effects of apomorphine and long-term levodopa treatment on the frontal N30 component were assessed and compared with healthy controls. Nine of 10 patients tested with apomorphine showed a significant improvement (p

High Frequency Non-Invasive Stimulation Over the Spine: Effects on Mood and Mechanical Pain Tolerance in Normal Subjects

We investigated the effects of non-invasive high frequency (625Hz) stimulation over the spine on mechanical pain tolerance and subjective mood. Sixty healthy subjects were divided equally into three groups receiving either high intensity (250 V), low intensity (3–4 V) or sham electrical stimulation directly over the spinal cord for 30 minutes. Following high intensity stimulation...