European Journal of Applied Physiology

http://link.springer.com/journal/421

List of Papers (Total 288)

Changes in appetite, energy intake, body composition, and circulating ghrelin constituents during an incremental trekking ascent to high altitude

Purpose Circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations are associated with altitude-induced anorexia in laboratory environments, but have never been measured at terrestrial altitude. This study examined time course changes in appetite, energy intake, body composition, and ghrelin constituents during a high-altitude trek. Methods Twelve participants [age: 28(4) years, BMI 23.0(2.1) kg ...

The effects of traditional, superset, and tri-set resistance training structures on perceived intensity and physiological responses

Purpose Investigate the acute and short-term (i.e., 24 h) effects of traditional (TRAD), superset (SS), and tri-set (TRI) resistance training protocols on perceptions of intensity and physiological responses. Methods Fourteen male participants completed a familiarisation session and three resistance training protocols (i.e., TRAD, SS, and TRI) in a randomised-crossover design. ...

Power output and fatigue properties using spatially distributed sequential stimulation in a dynamic knee extension task

Purpose The low power output and fatigue resistance during functional electrical stimulation (FES) limits its use for functional applications. The aim of this study was to compare the power output and fatigue properties of spatially distributed sequential stimulation (SDSS) against conventional single electrode stimulation (SES) in an isokinetic knee extension task simulating knee ...

T-regulatory cells exhibit a biphasic response to prolonged endurance exercise in humans

Purpose T-regulatory cells (Tregs) are a sub-population of lymphocytes that act to suppress aberrant immune responses. We investigated changes in the numbers of naïve and terminally differentiated Tregs in the peripheral blood to establish their role in the immuno-suppressive response to prolonged exercise. Methods Blood was drawn from seventeen experienced runners (age 40 ± 12 ...

Acute effects of constant torque and constant angle stretching on the muscle and tendon tissue properties

Purpose Static stretching induces acute structural changes of the muscle–tendon unit (MTU) that are related to the intensity or duration of stretching. It has been reported that stretching with a constant torque (CT) leads to greater joint range of motion changes than stretching with a constant angle (CA). Whether or not this difference is due to different structural changes of the ...

The effects of strength training versus ski-ergometer training on double-poling capacity of elite junior cross-country skiers

Purpose To compare the effects of strength training versus ski-ergometer training on double-poling gross efficiency (GE), maximal speed (V max), peak oxygen uptake (\(\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{ 2 {\text{peak}}}}\)) for elite male and female junior cross-country skiers. Methods Thirty-three elite junior cross-country skiers completed a 6-week training-intervention period with two ...

Movement amplitude on the Functional Re-adaptive Exercise Device: deep spinal muscle activity and movement control

Purpose Lumbar multifidus (LM) and transversus abdominis (TrA) show altered motor control, and LM is atrophied, in people with low-back pain (LBP). The Functional Re-adaptive Exercise Device (FRED) involves cyclical lower-limb movement against minimal resistance in an upright posture. It has been shown to recruit LM and TrA automatically, and may have potential as an intervention ...

Doubly labelled water assessment of energy expenditure: principle, practice, and promise

The doubly labelled water method for the assessment of energy expenditure was first published in 1955, application in humans started in 1982, and it has become the gold standard for human energy requirement under daily living conditions. The method involves enriching the body water of a subject with heavy hydrogen (2H) and heavy oxygen (18O), and then determining the difference in ...

Effects of breaking up prolonged sitting following low and high glycaemic index breakfast consumption on glucose and insulin concentrations

Purpose Breaking up prolonged sitting can attenuate the postprandial rise in glucose and insulin. Whether such effects are dependent of the glycaemic index (GI) of the consumed carbohydrate is unknown. This study examined the acute effects of breaking up prolonged sitting following a low GI and a high GI breakfast on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. Procedures ...

Oral contraceptive pill use and the susceptibility to markers of exercise-induced muscle damage

Purpose Firstly, to establish whether oral contraceptive pill (OCP) users are more susceptible to muscle damage compared to non-users, and secondly, to establish whether differences can be attributed to differences in patella tendon properties. Methods Nine female OCP users and 9 female non-users participated in the investigation. Combining dynamometry, electromyography and ...

No association between hand and foot temperature responses during local cold stress and rewarming

Purpose The purpose was to examine whether associations exist between temperature responses in the fingers vs. toes and hand vs. foot during local cold-water immersion and rewarming phases. Methods Seventy healthy subjects (58 males, 12 females) immersed their right hand or right foot, respectively, in 8 °C water for 30 min (CWI phase), followed by a 15-min spontaneous rewarming ...

Reliability of quadriceps surface electromyography measurements is improved by two vs. single site recordings

Purpose The reliability of surface electromyography (sEMG) is typically modest even with rigorous methods, and therefore further improvements in sEMG reliability are desirable. This study compared the between-session reliability (both within participant absolute reliability and between-participant relative reliability) of sEMG amplitude from single vs. average of two distinct ...

Can intervals enhance the inflammatory response and enjoyment in upper-body exercise?

Purpose To investigate the inflammatory and perceptual responses to three different forms of upper-body exercise. Methods Twelve recreationally active, able-bodied males performed three work-matched arm-crank sessions in a randomised order: 30 min moderate-intensity continuous (CON), 30 min moderate-intensity with changes in cadence (CAD) and 20 min high-intensity interval training ...

Sitting position affects performance in cross-country sit-skiing

Purpose In cross-country sit-skiing (XCSS), athletes with reduced trunk control predominantly sit with the knees higher than the hips (KH); a position often associated with large spinal flexion. Therefore, to improve spinal curvature a new sledge with frontal trunk support, where knees are lower than hips (KL) was created. It was hypothesized that the KL position would improve ...

β-alanine supplementation improves in-vivo fresh and fatigued skeletal muscle relaxation speed

Purpose In fresh muscle, supplementation with the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, β-alanine (BA), results in a decline in muscle half-relaxation time (HRT) potentially via alterations to calcium (Ca2+) handling. Accumulation of hydrogen cation (H+) has been shown to impact Ca2+ signalling during muscular contraction, carnosine has the potential to serve as a cytoplasmic ...

Old adults preserve motor flexibility during rapid reaching

Purpose Our ability to flexibly coordinate the available degrees of freedom allows us to perform activities of daily living under various task constraints. Healthy old adults exhibit subclinical peripheral and central nervous system dysfunctions, possibly compromising the flexibility in inter-joint coordination during voluntary movements and the ability to adapt to varying task ...

Markers of physiological stress during exercise under conditions of normoxia, normobaric hypoxia, hypobaric hypoxia, and genuine high altitude

Purpose To investigate whether there is a differential response at rest and following exercise to conditions of genuine high altitude (GHA), normobaric hypoxia (NH), hypobaric hypoxia (HH), and normobaric normoxia (NN). Method Markers of sympathoadrenal and adrenocortical function [plasma normetanephrine (PNORMET), metanephrine (PMET), cortisol], myocardial injury [highly sensitive ...

Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein and gut permeability responses to exercise

Purpose Intestinal cell damage due to physiological stressors (e.g. heat, oxidative, hypoperfusion/ischaemic) may contribute to increased intestinal permeability. The aim of this study was to assess changes in plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) in response to exercise (with bovine colostrum supplementation, Col, positive control) and compare this to intestinal ...

Determinants of curvature constant (W’) of the power duration relationship under normoxia and hypoxia: the effect of pre-exercise alkalosis

Purpose This study investigated the effect of induced alkalosis on the curvature constant (W’) of the power-duration relationship under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Methods Eleven trained cyclists (mean ± SD) Age: 32 ± 7.2 years; body mass (bm): 77.0 ± 9.2 kg; VO2peak: 59.2 ± 6.8 ml·kg−1·min−1 completed seven laboratory visits which involved the determination of individual time ...

Soft tissues, areal bone mineral density and hip geometry estimates in active young boys: the PRO-BONE study

Purpose Soft tissues, such as fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM), play an important role in bone development but this is poorly understood in highly active youths. The objective of this study was to determine whether FM or LM is a stronger predictor of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and hip geometry estimates in a group of physically active boys after adjusting for height, ...

Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances short but not longer duration running time-trial performance

Purpose This study evaluated the effects of dietary nitrate (NO3 −) supplementation on physiological functioning and exercise performance in trained runners/triathletes conducting short and longer-distance treadmill running time-trials (TT). Method Eight trained male runners or triathletes completed four exercise performance tests comprising a 10 min warm up followed by either a ...

The assessment of neuromuscular fatigue during 120 min of simulated soccer exercise

Purpose This investigation examined the development of neuromuscular fatigue during a simulated soccer match incorporating a period of extra time (ET) and the reliability of these responses on repeated test occasions. Methods Ten male amateur football players completed a 120 min soccer match simulation (SMS). Before, at half time (HT), full time (FT), and following a period of ET, ...

Polymorphisms in PTK2 are associated with skeletal muscle specific force: an independent replication study

Purpose The aim of the study was to investigate two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in PTK2 for associations with human muscle strength phenotypes in healthy men. Methods Measurement of maximal isometric voluntary knee extension (MVCKE) torque, net MVCKE torque and vastus lateralis (VL) specific force, using established techniques, was completed on 120 Caucasian men (age = ...