The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

http://www.ajtmh.org

List of Papers (Total 6,368)

Blood Transfusion Delay and Outcome in County Hospitals in Kenya

Severe anemia is a leading indication for blood transfusion and a major cause of hospital admission and mortality in African children. Failure to initiate blood transfusion rapidly enough contributes to anemia deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. This article examines delays in accessing blood and outcomes in transfused children in Kenyan hospitals. Children admitted with nonsurgical ...

Predictors of Health-Care Utilization Among Children 6–59 Months of Age in Zambézia Province, Mozambique

Globally, approximately 5.9 million children under 5 years of age died in 2015, a reduction of over 50% since 1990. Millennium Development Goal 4 established the goal of reducing child mortality by two-thirds by 2015. Multiple countries have surpassed this goal; however, regional and within-country inequities exist. We sought to study determinants of health-care utilization among ...

Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Nephropathy in Diabetic Patients Attending an Outpatient Clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe

There is limited information on the burden of diabetic nephropathy in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with nephropathy among diabetic patients attending an outpatient clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. In an analytical cross-sectional study, diabetic patients were consecutively enrolled and a questionnaire administered, clinical ...

Dynamics and Trends in Fecal Biomarkers of Gut Function in Children from 1–24 Months in the MAL-ED Study

Growth and development shortfalls that are disproportionately prevalent in children living in poor environmental conditions are postulated to result, at least in part, from abnormal gut function. Using data from The Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) longitudinal cohort ...

Adapting and Evaluating a Rapid, Low-Cost Method to Enumerate Flies in the Household Setting

Diarrhea is a leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age worldwide. Flies are important vectors of diarrheal pathogens in settings lacking networked sanitation services. There is no standardized method for measuring fly density in households; many methods are cumbersome and unvalidated. We adapted a rapid, low-cost fly enumeration technique previously developed for ...

Nonrandomized Trial of Feasibility and Acceptability of Strategies for Promotion of Soapy Water as a Handwashing Agent in Rural Bangladesh

We conducted a nonrandomized trial of strategies to promote soapy water for handwashing in rural Bangladesh and measured uptake. We enrolled households with children < 3 years for three progressively intensive study arms: promotion of soapy water (N = 120), soapy water promotion plus handwashing stations (N = 103), and soapy water promotion, stations plus detergent refills (N = ...

Evaluation of the GeneXpert for Human Monkeypox Diagnosis

Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a zoonotic orthopoxvirus (OPX), is endemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Currently, diagnostic assays for human monkeypox (MPX) focus on real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, which are typically performed in sophisticated laboratory settings. Herein, we evaluated the accuracy and utility of a multiplex MPX assay using ...

Development of Immunoassays for Burkholderia pseudomallei Typical and Atypical Lipopolysaccharide Strain Typing

Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe infection endemic to many tropical regions. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is recognized as an important virulence factor used by B. pseudomallei. Isolates of B. pseudomallei have been shown to express one of four different types of LPS (typical LPS, atypical LPS types B and B2, and rough LPS) and in vitro studies ...

Stability of Dihydroartemisinin–Piperaquine Tablet Halves During Prolonged Storage Under Tropical Conditions

Dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine (DP) is recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, used in efforts to contain artemisinin resistance, and increasingly considered for mass drug administration. Because of the narrow therapeutic dose range and available tablet strengths, the manufacturers and World Health Organization recommended regimens involve breaking tablets into ...

Prototype Positive Control Wells for Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests: Prospective Evaluation of Implementation Among Health Workers in Lao People's Democratic Republic and Uganda

Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used for malaria diagnosis, but lack of quality control at point of care restricts trust in test results. Prototype positive control wells (PCW) containing recombinant malaria antigens have been developed to identify poor-quality RDT lots. This study assessed community and facility health workers' (HW) ability to use PCWs to detect degraded ...

Detection of Wolbachia in Aedes albopictus and Their Effects on Chikungunya Virus

Wolbachia-based vector control strategies have been proposed as a means to augment the currently existing measures for controlling dengue and chikungunya vectors. Prior to utilizing Wolbachia as a novel vector control strategy, it is crucial to understand the Wolbachia–mosquito interactions. In this study, field surveys were conducted to screen for the infection status of Wolbachia ...

Tetanus in Southern Vietnam: Current Situation

In Vietnam, there are no accurate data on tetanus incidence to allow assessment of disease burden or vaccination program efficacy. We analyzed age structure of 786 tetanus cases admitted to a tertiary referral center in Vietnam for three separate years during an 18-year period to examine the impact of tetanus prevention programs, namely the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) ...

Flea-Borne Rickettsioses and Rickettsiae

Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis are flea-borne rickettsiae that are distributed throughout the world. This mini-review outlines the ecology and epidemiology of flea-borne rickettsioses; highlights important clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic considerations; and discusses areas of uncertainty regarding Rickettsia felis and other rickettsiae harbored by fleas.

The Emergence of Undergraduate Majors in Global Health: Systematic Review of Programs and Recommendations for Future Directions

Global health education has been expanding rapidly and several universities have created an undergraduate major degree (bachelor's degree) in global heath or global health studies. Because there are currently no national guidelines for undergraduate degrees in global health, each of these programs was developed along individual lines. To guide the development of future global ...

Priorities for the Priority Review Voucher

The U.S. Congress created the priority review voucher program in 2007 to encourage development of drugs for neglected diseases. Under the voucher program, the developer of a drug for a neglected or rare pediatric disease that is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration receives a bonus priority review voucher for another drug. As of 2016, four vouchers have sold for an ...

The Tropical Disease Priority Review Voucher: A Game-Changer for Tropical Disease Products

The Neglected Tropical Disease Voucher Program is a Congressionally-mandated program intended to promote approval of products for tropical diseases because it provides spectacular financial compensation consequent to FDA approval of a priority product. Three drug approvals–artemether/lumifantrine for malaria, bedaquiline for multidrug resistant tuberculosis, miltefosine for ...