ICES Journal of Marine Science

http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org

List of Papers (Total 3,391)

Predictable hydrodynamic conditions explain temporal variations in the density of benthic foraging seabirds in a tidal stream environment

Tidal stream turbines could have several direct impacts upon pursuit-diving seabirds foraging within tidal stream environments (mean horizontal current speeds > 2 ms−1), including collisions and displacement. Understanding how foraging seabirds respond to temporally variable but predictable hydrodynamic conditions immediately around devices could identify when interactions between ...

Maximum sustainable yield from interacting fish stocks in an uncertain world: two policy choices and underlying trade-offs

The case of fisheries management illustrates how the inherent structural instability of ecosystems can have deep-running policy implications. We contrast 10 types of management plans to achieve maximum sustainable yield (MSY) from multiple stocks and compare their effectiveness based on a management strategy evaluation (MSE) that uses complex food webs in its operating model. Plans ...

Widespread genetic introgression of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon in wild salmon populations

Farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) escape from net pens and enter rivers to spawn, potentially resulting in genetic introgression and reduced fitness of wild salmon. Here, we quantify genetic introgression of farmed to wild salmon, using molecular genetic markers, in populations from 147 salmon rivers, representing three-quarters of the total wild salmon spawning population in ...

Identifying the best fishing-suitable areas under the new European discard ban

The spatial management of fisheries has been repeatedly proposed as a discard mitigation measure. A number of studies have assessed the fishing suitability of an area based on units of by-catch or discard per unit effort. However, correct identification of fishing-suitable areas should assess biomass loss with respect to the benefits. This study therefore, proposes the analysis of ...

The logic of comparative life history studies for estimating key parameters, with a focus on natural mortality rate

There are a number of key parameters in population dynamics that are difficult to estimate, such as natural mortality rate, intrinsic rate of population growth, and stock-recruitment relationships. Often, these parameters of a stock are, or can be, estimated indirectly on the basis of comparative life history studies. That is, the relationship between a difficult to estimate ...

Management of the eel is slipping through our hands! Distribute control and orchestrate national protection

Following a multi-decadal decline of the European eel stock all across the continent, the EU adopted a protection and recovery plan in 2007, known as the Eel Regulation. Implementation, however, has come to a standstill: in 2015, the agreed goals had not been realised, the required protection had not been achieved, and from 2012 to 2015, no further reduction in mortality has been ...

The impact of alternative rebuilding strategies to rebuild overfished stocks

Ending overfishing and rebuilding fish stocks to levels that provide for optimum sustainable yield is a concern for fisheries management worldwide. In the United States, fisheries managers are legally mandated to end overfishing and to implement rebuilding plans for fish stocks that fall below minimum stock size thresholds. Rebuilding plans should lead to recovery to target stock ...

Reproductive skew in Japanese sardine inferred from DNA sequences

An excess of low-frequency mutations is a ubiquitous characteristic of many marine species, and may be explained by three hypotheses. First, the demographic expansion hypothesis postulates that many species experienced a post-glacial expansion following a Pleistocene population bottleneck. The second invokes some form of natural selection, such as directional selection and ...

New DNA coalescent models and old population genetics software†

The analyses of often large amounts of field and laboratory data depend on computer programs to generate descriptive statistics and to test hypotheses. The algorithms in these programs are often complex and can be understood only with advanced training in mathematics and programming, topics that are beyond the capabilities of most fisheries biologists and empirical population ...

Microbial community and its potential as descriptor of environmental status

Planktonic communities hold a relevant role within the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). In view of reaching the Good Environmental Status of marine ecosystems, within this Directive the phyto- and zooplanktonic communities have received great attention, while Prokaryotes (Bacteria, Archaea, and Cyanobacteria) have been neglected. Indeed, the relevance of microbes ...

Of mice, fishermen, and food†

A non-linear science career: how I started in terrestrial ecology working on rodents, moved on to fisheries management, and ended up comparing the environmental impacts of fishing to farming. I was drawn to fisheries because there was a real need for science and the kind of analysis I did to help solve real world problems. I was very fortunate that the advent of major computing ...

Having to science the hell out of it‡

A first-person account of the scientific career of the fishery scientist Daniel Pauly is given, starting with his studies in Germany and his work on a coastal lagoon in Ghana in 1971, through his trawl fisheries surveys in Indonesia (1975–1976), his work at the International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management in the Philippines (1979–mid-1990s), and his transition to ...

Natural history: an approach whose time has come, passed, and needs to be resurrected†

The development of our understanding of fish and other marine fauna, including my own over several decades, has proceeded from basic natural history to ecology and evolution, but we often need to return to natural history to address deficiencies in our attempts to manage fisheries, conserve habitats, and model ecosystems. This resurrection of natural history is still needed because ...

Quantifying acoustic survey uncertainty using Bayesian hierarchical modeling with an application to assessing Mysis relicta population densities in Lake Ontario

A Bayesian hierarchical model was applied to acoustic backscattering data collected on Mysis relicta (opossum shrimp) populations in Lake Ontario in 2005 to estimate the combined uncertainty in mean density estimates as well as the individual contributions to that uncertainty from the various information sources involved in the calculation including calibration, target strength ...

The migration of fin whales into the southern Chukchi Sea as monitored with passive acoustics

Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) undergo seasonal migration in the Arctic Sea. Because their migration and distribution is likely affected by changes in global climate, we aimed to examine the migration timing of fin whales, and the relationship with prey availability within the oceanographic environment of the Arctic Sea, using passive and active acoustic monitoring methods. ...

Observing the ocean interior in support of integrated management

Active- and passive-acoustic methods are widely used tools for observing, monitoring, and understanding marine ecosystems. From 25 to 28 May 2015, 214 scientists from 31 nations gathered for an ICES symposium on Marine Ecosystem Acoustics (SoME Acoustics) to discuss three major themes related to acoustic observations of marine ecosystems: (i) recent developments in acoustic and ...

Seascapes as a new vernacular for pelagic ocean monitoring, management and conservation

For terrestrial and marine benthic ecologists, landscape ecology provides a framework to address issues of complexity, patchiness, and scale—providing theory and context for ecosystem based management in a changing climate. Marine pelagic ecosystems are likewise changing in response to warming, changing chemistry, and resource exploitation. However, unlike spatial landscapes that ...

Seascapes are not landscapes: an analysis performed using Bernhard Riemann's rules

Applied seascape ecology rests on paradigms of terrestrial landscape ecology. Patches defined by persistent seabed features are the basic units of analysis. Persistent oceanographic features provide context while dynamic features are usually ignored. Should seascape ecology rest on terrestrial paradigms? I use Reimann’s rules of analysis to identify differences between seascapes ...

Observing and managing seascapes: linking synoptic oceanography, ecological processes, and geospatial modelling

The capacity to observe, retrieve, and model the physiographical and hydrographical features of the sea (i.e. seascapes) has surpassed our ability to integrate this information into the assessment and stewardship of marine ecosystems. However, current marine policy that mandates integrated ecosystem assessments demands temporally intensive and spatially extensive predictions of key ...

Integrating spatial synchrony/asynchrony of population distribution into stock assessment models: a spatial hierarchical Bayesian statistical catch-at-age approach

In many marine fisheries assessments, population abundance indices from surveys collected by different states and agencies do not always agree with each other. This phenomenon is often due to the spatial synchrony/asynchrony. Those indices that are asynchronous may result in discrepancies in the assessment of temporal trends. In addition, commonly employed stock assessment models, ...

A guinea pig's tale: learning to review end-to-end marine ecosystem models for management applications

A shift towards ecosystem-based management in recent decades has led to new analytical tools such as end-to-end marine ecosystem models. End-to-end models are complex and typically simulate full ecosystems from oceanography to foodwebs and fisheries, operate on a spatial framework, and link to physical oceanographic models. Most end-to-end approaches allow multiple ways to ...

Fisheries, the inverted food pyramid

A global assessment of fishing patterns and fishing pressure from 110 different Ecopath models, representing marine ecosystems throughout the world and covering the period 1970–2007, show that human exploitation across trophic levels (TLs) is highly unbalanced and skewed towards low productive species at high TLs, which are around two TLs higher than the animal protein we get from ...

A critique of the balanced harvesting approach to fishing

The approach to fisheries termed “balanced harvesting” (BH) calls for fishing across the widest possible range of species, stocks, and sizes in an ecosystem, in proportion to their natural productivity, so that the relative size and species composition is maintained. Such fishing is proposed to result in higher catches with less negative impact on exploited populations and ...