For long-baseline over several hundreds of kilometers, the ionospheric delays that cannot be fully removed by differencing observations between receivers hampers rapid ambiguity resolution. Compared with forming ionospheric-free linear combination using dual- or triple-frequency observations, estimating ionospheric delays using uncombined observations keeps all the information of...

Long series of Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD) obtained as part of a homogeneous re-processing of Global Positioning System solutions constitute a reliable set of data to be assimilated into climate models. The correct stochastic properties, i.e. the noise model of these data, have to be identified to assess the real value of ZWD trend uncertainties since assuming an inappropriate noise...

The ionosphere can be modeled and studied using multi-frequency GNSS signals and their geometry-free linear combination. Therefore, a number of GNSS-derived ionospheric models have been developed and applied in a broad range of applications. However, due to the complexity of estimating the carrier phase ambiguities, most of these models are based on low-accuracy carrier phase...

In ionospheric modeling, the differential code biases (DCBs) are a non-negligible error source, which are routinely estimated by the different analysis centers of the International GNSS Service (IGS) as a by-product of their global ionospheric analysis. These are, however, estimated only for the IGS station receivers and for all the satellites of the different GNSS constellations...

Mixed integer–real least squares (MIRLS) estimation still has two open scientific problems, i.e., the validation of results and computational efficiency for a large number of satellites. This paper presents and discusses a non-conventional approach to MIRLS estimation, which belongs to the ambiguity function method (AFM) class. Because the solution is searched for in the constant...

The coordinate time series determined with the Global Positioning System (GPS) contain annual and semi-annual periods that are routinely modeled by two periodic signals with constant amplitude and phase-lag. However, the amplitude and phase-lag of the seasonal signals vary slightly over time. Various methods have been proposed to model these variations such as Wavelet...

Thermal emission of atmospheric water vapor has a great influence on the calibration of radio astronomical observations at millimeter wavelengths. The phenomenon of an atmospheric water vapor emits noise signal and attenuates astronomical emission. At 22 GHz, integrated water vapor (IWV) obtained from global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) is strictly related to atmospheric...

An increasing number of satellites of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) and their constant modernization allow improving positioning accuracy and enable performing the GNSS measurements in challenging environments. Since 2016, the Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES) has been providing real-time corrections for all GNSS and thus allows for the actual multi-GNSS...

High attenuation, blockage and severe multipath fading in urban environments, under dense canopy or jamming attacks degrade accuracy, continuity, availability and integrity of GNSS services. GNSS/INS integration and antenna array beamforming approaches both provide certain levels of protection against these challenging circumstances in different ways and are studied in the...

The velocity estimates and their uncertainties derived from position time series of Global Navigation Satellite System stations are affected by seasonal signals and their harmonics, and the statistical properties, i.e., the stochastic noise, contained in the series. If the deterministic model in the form of linear trend and periodic terms is not accurate enough to describe the...

We investigated characteristics of anomalous spatial gradients in ionospheric delay on GNSS signals in the Asia-Pacific (APAC) low-magnetic latitude region in the context of the ground-based augmentation system (GBAS). The ionospheric studies task force established under the Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance subgroup of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO...

The accuracy of conventional global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) positioning in dense urban areas is severely degraded due to blockage and reflection of the signals by the surrounding buildings. By using 3D mapping of the buildings to aid GNSS positioning, the accuracy can be substantially improved. However, positioning performance must be balanced against computational...

Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a popular Global Positioning System (GPS) processing strategy, thanks to its high precision without requiring additional GPS infrastructure. Single-Frequency PPP (SF-PPP) takes this one step further by no longer relying on expensive dual-frequency GPS receivers, while maintaining a relatively high positioning accuracy. The use of GPS-only SF-PPP...

The tropospheric delay is one of the major error sources in precise point positioning (PPP), affecting the accuracy and precision of estimated coordinates and convergence time, which raises demand for a reliable tropospheric model, suitable to support PPP. In this study, we investigate the impact of three tropospheric models and mapping functions regarding position accuracy and...

Successful resolution of integer ambiguity over long baselines is a key to improve the accuracy of precise orbit determination for global navigation satellite system satellites. The satellite-induced code bias (SCB) found in BDS signals severely prevents the BDS integer ambiguity resolution (AR) of long baselines. We present BDS AR using satellite-induced code bias correction for...

A key limitation for precise orbit determination of BeiDou satellites, particularly for satellites in geostationary orbit (GEO), is the relative weak geometry of ground stations. Fortunately, data from a low earth orbiting satellite with an onboard GNSS receiver can improve the geometry of GNSS orbit determination compared to using only ground data. The Chinese FengYun-3C (FY3C...

Strong ionospheric electron content gradients may lead to fast and unpredictable fluctuations in the phase and amplitude of the signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). This phenomenon, known as ionospheric scintillation, is capable of deteriorating the tracking performance of a GNSS receiver, leading to increased phase and Doppler errors, cycle slips and also to...

The geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) is related to the satellite geometry. Thus far, research has focused on minimizing the GDOP by selecting a set of satellites that maximizes the volume spanned by the user-to-satellite unit vectors. However, this relation has been only analyzed when four satellites are used for computing the three-dimensional position, for which the...

Observations of moderate night time amplitude scintillation on the GPS L1C/A signal were recorded at the midlatitude station of Nicosia, corresponding geographic latitude and longitude of 35.18°N and 33.38°E respectively, on a geomagnetically quiet day. The variations of slant total electron content (STEC) and amplitude scintillation index (S4) on the night of June 12, 2014...

In GNSS data processing, the station height, receiver clock and tropospheric delay (ZTD) are highly correlated to each other. Although the zenith hydrostatic delay of the troposphere can be provided with sufficient accuracy, zenith wet delay (ZWD) has to be estimated, which is usually done in a random walk process. Since ZWD temporal variation depends on the water vapor content...

A review of the research conducted until present on the subject of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) hardware-induced phase and code biases is here provided. Biases in GNSS positioning occur because of imperfections and/or physical limitations in the GNSS hardware. The biases are a result of small delays between events that ideally should be simultaneous in the...

Precise positioning using the signals of the Global Position System requires correcting the distance between the points of reception of the signal carrier phase and the antenna reference point. Sophisticated models to account for these phase errors are available and widely in use. These models are usually based on calibrations of several antennas of the same type to derive a mean...

Conventional Kalman filter (KF) relies heavily on a priori knowledge of the potentially unstable process and measurement noise statistics. Insufficiently known a priori filter statistics will reduce the precision of the estimated states or introduce biases to the estimates. We propose an adaptive KF based on the autoregressive (AR) predictive model for vehicle navigation. First...

A Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver usually needs a sufficient number of full pseudorange measurements to obtain a position solution. However, it is time-consuming to acquire full pseudorange information from only the satellite broadcast signals due to the navigation data features of GNSS. In order to realize fast positioning during a cold or warm start in a GNSS...