Human Genomics

http://www.humgenomics.com/

List of Papers (Total 398)

Evaluating somatic tumor mutation detection without matched normal samples

Observations of recurrent somatic mutations in tumors have led to identification and definition of signaling and other pathways that are important for cancer progression and therapeutic targeting. As tumor cells contain both an individual’s inherited genetic variants and somatic mutations, challenges arise in distinguishing these events in massively parallel sequencing datasets. ...

Distinct transcriptional and metabolic profiles associated with empathy in Buddhist priests: a pilot study

Growing evidence suggests that spiritual/religious involvement may have beneficial effects on both psychological and physical functions. However, the biological basis for this relationship remains unclear. This study explored the role of spiritual/religious involvement across a wide range of biological markers, including transcripts and metabolites, associated with the ...

Falling giants and the rise of gene editing: ethics, private interests and the public good

This paper considers the tensions created in genomic research by public and private for-profit ideals. Our intent is to strengthen the public good at a time when doing science is strongly motivated by market possibilities and opportunities. Focusing on the emergence of gene editing, and in particular CRISPR, we consider how commercialisation encourages hype and hope—a sense that ...

Mutational analysis of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes among Estonian osteogenesis imperfecta patients

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare bone disorder. In 90% of cases, OI is caused by mutations in the COL1A1/2 genes, which code procollagen α1 and α2 chains. The main aim of the current research was to identify the mutational spectrum of COL1A1/2 genes in Estonian patients. The small population size of Estonia provides a unique chance to explore the collagen I mutational profile ...

A novel RLBP1 gene geographical area-related mutation present in a young patient with retinitis punctata albescens

Autosomal recessive forms of retinitis punctata albescens (RPA) have been described. RPA is characterized by progressive retinal degeneration due to alteration in visual cycle and consequent deposit of photopigments in retinal pigment epithelium. Five loci have been linked to RPA onset. Among these, the retinaldehyde-binding protein 1 gene, RLBP1, is the most frequently involved ...

The status of Her2 amplification and Kras mutations in mucinous ovarian carcinoma

Jayson GC et al. remarked in Lancet that nearly 100% of mucinous ovarian cancer cases have Kras mutation as well as a high frequency of Her2 amplification. Using the Abbott PathVysion Her2 DNA Probe Kit and Kras mutant-enriched PCR Kits (FemtoPath®), 21 samples of primary ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinomas from Taiwanese patients were examined to determine the status of Her2 ...

Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma risk in smokers: no association detected between phenotype and AHR, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, or CYP1B1 genotype

Background Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) differs between smokers and nonsmokers in etiology and clinical presentation. Because of demonstrated unequivocal involvement in smoking-induced cancer in laboratory animals, four candidate genes––AHR, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1––were selected for a clinical genotype-phenotype association study of HNSCC risk in smokers. ...

Targeted next generation sequencing identifies novel NOTCH3 gene mutations in CADASIL diagnostics patients

Background Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a monogenic, hereditary, small vessel disease of the brain causing stroke and vascular dementia in adults. CADASIL has previously been shown to be caused by varying mutations in the NOTCH3 gene. The disorder is often misdiagnosed due to its significant clinical ...

Transcriptome analysis reveals manifold mechanisms of cyst development in ADPKD

Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) causes progressive loss of renal function in adults as a consequence of the accumulation of cysts. ADPKD is the most common genetic cause of end-stage renal disease. Mutations in polycystin-1 occur in 87% of cases of ADPKD and mutations in polycystin-2 are found in 12% of ADPKD patients. The complexity of ADPKD has ...

A genomic case study of desmoplastic small round cell tumor: comprehensive analysis reveals insights into potential therapeutic targets and development of a monitoring tool for a rare and aggressive disease

Background Genome-wide profiling of rare tumors is crucial for improvement of diagnosis, treatment, and, consequently, achieving better outcomes. Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare type of sarcoma arising from mesenchymal cells of abdominal peritoneum that usually develops in male adolescents and young adults. A specific translocation, t(11;22)(p13;q12), ...

Navigating the dynamic landscape of long noncoding RNA and protein-coding gene annotations in GENCODE

Background Our understanding of the transcriptional potential of the genome and its functional consequences has undergone a significant change in the last decade. This has been largely contributed by the improvements in technology which could annotate and in many cases functionally characterize a number of novel gene loci in the human genome. Keeping pace with advancements in this ...

Novel genetic risk variants for pediatric celiac disease

Background Celiac disease is a complex chronic immune-mediated disorder of the small intestine. Today, the pathobiology of the disease is unclear, perplexing differential diagnosis, patient stratification, and decision-making in the clinic. Methods Herein, we adopted a next-generation sequencing approach in a celiac disease trio of Greek descent to identify all genomic variants ...

A first-line diagnostic assay for limb-girdle muscular dystrophy and other myopathies

Background Fifty random genetically unstudied families (limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD)/myopathy) were screened with a gene panel incorporating 759 OMIM genes associated with neurological disorders. Average coverage of the CDS and 10 bp flanking regions of genes was 99 %. All families were referred to the Neurosciences Clinic of King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research ...

An efficient method for protein function annotation based on multilayer protein networks

Background Accurate annotation of protein functions is still a big challenge for understanding life in the post-genomic era. Many computational methods based on protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks have been proposed to predict the function of proteins. However, the precision of these predictions still needs to be improved, due to the incompletion and noise in PPI networks. ...

Major influence of repetitive elements on disease-associated copy number variants (CNVs)

Copy number variants (CNVs) are important contributors to the human pathogenic genetic diversity as demonstrated by a number of cases reported in the literature. The high homology between repetitive elements may guide genomic stability which will give rise to CNVs either by non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) or non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Here, we present a short ...

Variation of global DNA methylation levels with age and in autistic children

Background The change in epigenetic signatures, in particular DNA methylation, has been proposed as risk markers for various age-related diseases. However, the course of variation in methylation levels with age, the difference in methylation between genders, and methylation-disease association at the whole genome level is unclear. In the present study, genome-wide methylation ...

MicroRNAs in acute kidney injury

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important clinical issue that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite research advances over the past decades, the complex pathophysiology of AKI is not fully understood. The regulatory mechanisms underlying post-AKI repair and fibrosis have not been clarified either. Furthermore, there is no definitively effective treatment ...

Transcriptome sequencing of gingival biopsies from chronic periodontitis patients reveals novel gene expression and splicing patterns

Background Periodontitis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease caused by complex interaction between the microbial biofilm and host immune responses. In the present study, high-throughput RNA sequencing was utilized to systemically and precisely identify gene expression profiles and alternative splicing. Methods The pooled RNAs of 10 gingival tissues from both healthy and ...

Mutation analysis of the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes in Vietnamese patients with osteogenesis imperfecta

Background The genetics of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have not been studied in a Vietnamese population before. We performed mutational analysis of the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes in 91 unrelated OI patients of Vietnamese origin. We then systematically characterized the mutation profiles of these two genes which are most commonly related to OI. Methods Genomic DNA was extracted from ...

Hypomethylation coordinates antagonistically with hypermethylation in cancer development: a case study of leukemia

Background Methylation changes are frequent in cancers, but understanding how hyper- and hypomethylated region changes coordinate, associate with genomic features, and affect gene expression is needed to better understand their biological significance. The functional significance of hypermethylation is well studied, but that of hypomethylation remains limited. Here, with paired ...

Identification of protein complexes from multi-relationship protein interaction networks

Background Protein complexes play an important role in biological processes. Recent developments in experiments have resulted in the publication of many high-quality, large-scale protein-protein interaction (PPI) datasets, which provide abundant data for computational approaches to the prediction of protein complexes. However, the precision of protein complex prediction still needs ...

A comparative study of k-spectrum-based error correction methods for next-generation sequencing data analysis

Background Innumerable opportunities for new genomic research have been stimulated by advancement in high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS). However, the pitfall of NGS data abundance is the complication of distinction between true biological variants and sequence error alterations during downstream analysis. Many error correction methods have been developed to correct ...

Association of six CpG-SNPs in the inflammation-related genes with coronary heart disease

Background Chronic inflammation has been widely considered to be the major risk factor of coronary heart disease (CHD). The goal of our study was to explore the possible association with CHD for inflammation-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides. A total of 784 CHD patients and 739 non-CHD controls were recruited ...

The up-regulation of Myb may help mediate EGCG inhibition effect on mouse lung adenocarcinoma

Background Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been demonstrated to inhibit cancer in experimental studies through its antioxidant activity and modulations on cellular functions by binding specific proteins. By means of computational analysis and functional genomic approaches, we previously identified a set of protein coding genes and microRNAs whose ...

The clinical significance of snail protein expression in gastric cancer: a meta-analysis

Background Snail is a typical transcription factor that could induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer progression. There are some related reports about the clinical significance of snail protein expression in gastric cancer. However, the published results were not completely consistent. This study was aimed to investigate snail expression and clinical significance ...