Human Genomics

http://www.humgenomics.com/

List of Papers (Total 398)

A survey of computational tools for downstream analysis of proteomic and other omic datasets

Proteomics is an expanding area of research into biological systems with significance for biomedical and therapeutic applications ranging from understanding the molecular basis of diseases to testing new treatments, studying the toxicity of drugs, or biotechnological improvements in agriculture. Progress in proteomic technologies and growing interest has resulted in rapid ...

Cancer classification in the genomic era: five contemporary problems

Classification is an everyday instinct as well as a full-fledged scientific discipline. Throughout the history of medicine, disease classification is central to how we develop knowledge, make diagnosis, and assign treatment. Here, we discuss the classification of cancer and the process of categorizing cancer subtypes based on their observed clinical and biological features. ...

Integrative DNA methylation and gene expression analysis to assess the universality of the CpG island methylator phenotype

Background The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was first characterized in colorectal cancer but since has been extensively studied in several other tumor types such as breast, bladder, lung, and gastric. CIMP is of clinical importance as it has been reported to be associated with prognosis or response to treatment. However, the identification of a universal molecular basis ...

Remotely acting SMCHD1 gene regulatory elements: in silico prediction and identification of potential regulatory variants in patients with FSHD

Background Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is commonly associated with contraction of the D4Z4 macro-satellite repeat on chromosome 4q35 (FSHD1) or mutations in the SMCHD1 gene (FSHD2). Recent studies have shown that the clinical manifestation of FSHD1 can be modified by mutations in the SMCHD1 gene within a given family. The absence of either D4Z4 contraction or SMCHD1 ...

Eyeing the Cyr61/CTGF/NOV (CCN) group of genes in development and diseases: highlights of their structural likenesses and functional dissimilarities

“CCN” is an acronym referring to the first letter of each of the first three members of this original group of mammalian functionally and phylogenetically distinct extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins [i.e., cysteine-rich 61 (CYR61), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and nephroblastoma-overexpressed (NOV)]. Although “CCN” genes are unlikely to have arisen from a common ...

MATWIN: bridging the gap between academic research and industry

MATWIN (Maturation and Accelerating Translation With INdustry) is part of the nationwide effort to support cancer innovation. This unique program is willing to support innovative research projects providing tools, resources, and staff dedicated to project leaders wishing to optimize the industrial attractiveness of their project. The overall objective is clear: fight cancer always ...

Copy number alterations detected by whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing of esophageal adenocarcinoma

Background Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) is among the leading causes of cancer mortality, especially in developed countries. A high level of somatic copy number alterations (CNAs) accumulates over the decades in the progression from Barrett’s esophagus, the precursor lesion, to EA. Accurate identification of somatic CNAs is essential to understand cancer development. Many studies ...

Trans-species polymorphism in humans and the great apes is generally maintained by balancing selection that modulates the host immune response

Summary Known examples of ancient identical-by-descent genetic variants being shared between evolutionarily related species, known as trans-species polymorphisms (TSPs), result from counterbalancing selective forces acting on target genes to confer resistance against infectious agents. To date, putative TSPs between humans and other primate species have been identified for the ...

Performance evaluation of indel calling tools using real short-read data

Background Insertion and deletion (indel), a common form of genetic variation, has been shown to cause or contribute to human genetic diseases and cancer. With the advance of next-generation sequencing technology, many indel calling tools have been developed; however, evaluation and comparison of these tools using large-scale real data are still scant. Here we evaluated seven ...

Whole-genome sequencing targets drug-resistant bacterial infections

During the past two decades, the technological progress of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) had changed the fields of Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology, and, currently, is changing the underlying principles, approaches, and fundamentals of Public Health, Epidemiology, Health Economics, and national productivity. Today’s WGS technologies are able to compete with conventional ...

Predicting the combined effect of multiple genetic variants

Background Many genetic variants have been identified in the human genome. The functional effects of a single variant have been intensively studied. However, the joint effects of multiple variants in the same genes have been largely ignored due to their complexity or lack of data. This paper uses HMMvar, a hidden Markov model based approach, to investigate the combined effect of ...

Epigenetic inheritance and the missing heritability

Genome-wide association studies of complex physiological traits and diseases consistently found that associated genetic factors, such as allelic polymorphisms or DNA mutations, only explained a minority of the expected heritable fraction. This discrepancy is known as “missing heritability”, and its underlying factors and molecular mechanisms are not established. Epigenetic programs ...

Fine-scale population structure of Malays in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore and implications for association studies

Fine scale population structure of Malays - the major population in Malaysia, has not been well studied. This may have important implications for both evolutionary and medical studies. Here, we investigated the population sub-structure of Malay involving 431 samples collected from all states from peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. We identified two major clusters of individuals ...

Utility and limitations of exome sequencing as a genetic diagnostic tool for conditions associated with pediatric sudden cardiac arrest/sudden cardiac death

Background Conditions associated with sudden cardiac arrest/death (SCA/D) in youth often have a genetic etiology. While SCA/D is uncommon, a pro-active family screening approach may identify these inherited structural and electrical abnormalities prior to symptomatic events and allow appropriate surveillance and treatment. This study investigated the diagnostic utility of exome ...

Genomics in the renal clinic - translating nephrogenetics for clinical practice

Genetic Renal Disease (GRD) presents to mainstream clinicians as a mixture of kidney-specific as well as multi-organ entities, many with highly variable phenotype-genotype relationships. The rapid increase in knowledge and reduced cost of sequencing translate to new and additional approaches to clinical care. Specifically, genomic technologies to test for known genes, the ...

SIRT1 affects DNA methylation of polycomb group protein target genes, a hotspot of the epigenetic shift observed in ageing

Background SIRT1 is likely to play a role in the extension in healthspan induced by dietary restriction. Actions of SIRT1 are pleiotropic, and effects on healthspan may include effects on DNA methylation. Polycomb group protein target genes (PCGTs) are suppressed by epigenetic mechanisms in stem cells, partly through the actions of the polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs), and have ...

Identification of cancer predisposition variants in apparently healthy individuals using a next-generation sequencing-based family genomics approach

Cancer, like many common disorders, has a complex etiology, often with a strong genetic component and with multiple environmental factors contributing to susceptibility. A considerable number of genomic variants have been previously reported to be causative of, or associated with, an increased risk for various types of cancer. Here, we adopted a next-generation sequencing approach ...

Complement regulator CD46: genetic variants and disease associations

Membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is an ubiquitously expressed complement regulatory protein that protects host cells from injury by complement. This type-I membrane glycoprotein serves as a cofactor for the serine protease factor I to mediate inactivation of C3b and C4b deposited on host cells. More than 60 disease-associated mutations in MCP have now been identified. The ...

Success stories in genomic medicine from resource-limited countries

In recent years, the translation of genomic discoveries into mainstream medical practice and public health has gained momentum, facilitated by the advent of new technologies. However, there are often major discrepancies in the pace of implementation of genomic medicine between developed and developing/resource-limited countries. The main reason does not only lie in the limitation ...

Clinical application of next-generation sequencing for Mendelian diseases

Over the past decade, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has led to an exponential increase in our understanding of the genetic basis of Mendelian diseases. NGS allows for the analysis of multiple regions of the genome in one single reaction and has been shown to be a cost-effective and efficient tool in investigating patients with Mendelian diseases. More recently, NGS has been ...

Is the genomic translational pipeline being disrupted?

The translational pipeline for genomic medicine has been well defined. However, as with any rapidly changing technology, innovations are difficult to predict leading to the potential to disrupt anticipated translation. Examples of potential disruptors such as laboratory-developed tests, direct-to-consumer testing, and patient-centered research are presented. Awareness of the ...

Prediction of complex human diseases from pathway-focused candidate markers by joint estimation of marker effects: case of chronic fatigue syndrome

Background The current practice of using only a few strongly associated genetic markers in regression models results in generally low power in prediction or accounting for heritability of complex human traits. Purpose We illustrate here a Bayesian joint estimation of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects principle to improve prediction of phenotype status from ...

Whole-exome sequencing identifies de novo mutation in the COL1A1 gene to underlie the severe osteogenesis imperfecta

Background Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of connective tissue disorders, characterized by low bone mass, increased bone fragility, and blue-gray eye sclera. OI often results from missense mutations in one of the conserved glycine residues present in the Gly-X-Y sequence repeats of the triple helical region of the collagen ...

Comparative sequence- and structure-inspired drug design for PilF protein of Neisseria meningitidis

Serogroup A of Neisseria meningitidis is the organism responsible for causing epidemic diseases in developing countries by a pilus-mediated adhesion to human brain endothelial cells. Type IV pilus assembly protein (PilF) associated with bacterial adhesion, aggregation, invasion, host cell signaling, surface motility, and natural transformation can be considered as a candidate for ...

Reviewer acknowledgement 2015

Contributing reviewers The Editors of Human Genomics would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in volume 8 (2014).