Human Genomics

http://www.humgenomics.com/

List of Papers (Total 398)

Evaluation of copy number variation and gene expression in neurofibromatosis type-1-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours

Background Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1) is a complex neurogenetic disorder characterised by the development of benign and malignant tumours of the peripheral nerve sheath (MPNSTs). Whilst biallelic NF1 gene inactivation contributes to benign tumour formation, additional cellular changes in gene structure and/or expression are required to induce malignant transformation. Although ...

Rapid detection of genetic mutations in individual breast cancer patients by next-generation DNA sequencing

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and the leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Breast cancers are heterogenous and exist in many different subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, triple negative, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpressing), and each subtype displays distinct characteristics, responses to treatment, and patient ...

Self-reported race/ethnicity in the age of genomic research: its potential impact on understanding health disparities

This review explores the limitations of self-reported race, ethnicity, and genetic ancestry in biomedical research. Various terminologies are used to classify human differences in genomic research including race, ethnicity, and ancestry. Although race and ethnicity are related, race refers to a person’s physical appearance, such as skin color and eye color. Ethnicity, on the other ...

Molecular signatures that correlate with induction of lens regeneration in newts: lessons from proteomic analysis

Background Amphibians have the remarkable ability to regenerate missing body parts. After complete removal of the eye lens, the dorsal but not the ventral iris will transdifferentiate to regenerate an exact replica of the lost lens. We used reverse-phase nano-liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry to detect protein concentrations in dorsal and ventral iris 0, 4, and 8 ...

Whole exome sequencing of a single osteosarcoma case—integrative analysis with whole transcriptome RNA-seq data

Background Osteosarcoma (OS) is a prevalent primary malignant bone tumour with unknown etiology. These highly metastasizing tumours are among the most frequent causes of cancer-related deaths. Thus, there is an urgent need for different markers, and with our study, we were aiming towards finding novel biomarkers for OS. Methods For that, we analysed the whole exome of the tumorous ...

Survival analysis tools in genomics research

There is an increasing demand to determine the clinical implication of experimental findings in molecular biomedical research. Survival (or failure time) analysis methodologies have been adapted to the analysis of genomics data to link molecular information with clinical outcomes of interest. Genome-wide molecular profiles have served as sources for discovery of ...

Exome sequencing identifies novel and recurrent mutations in GJA8 and CRYGD associated with inherited cataract

Background Inherited cataract is a clinically important and genetically heterogeneous cause of visual impairment. Typically, it presents at an early age with or without other ocular/systemic signs and lacks clear phenotype-genotype correlation rendering both clinical classification and molecular diagnosis challenging. Here we have utilized trio-based whole exome sequencing to ...

Informed consent and ethical re-use of African genomic data

Rapid advances in human genomic research are increasing the availability of genomic data for secondary analysis. Particularly in the case of vulnerable African populations, ethics and informed consent processes need to be transparent�both to ensure participant protection, as well as to share skills and to evolve best practice for informed consent from a shared knowledge base. An ...

Disease pathways at the Rat Genome Database Pathway Portal: genes in context�a network approach to understanding the molecular mechanisms of disease

Background Biological systems are exquisitely poised to respond and adjust to challenges, including damage. However, sustained damage can overcome the ability of the system to adjust and result in a disease phenotype, its underpinnings many times elusive. Unraveling the molecular mechanisms of systems biology, of how and why it falters, is essential for delineating the details of ...

Improved drug therapy: triangulating phenomics with genomics and metabolomics

Embracing the complexity of biological systems has a greater likelihood to improve prediction of clinical drug response. Here we discuss limitations of a singular focus on genomics, epigenomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, or phenomics—highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each individual technique. In contrast, ‘systems biology’ is proposed to allow ...

Ethical issues in genomic research on the African continent: experiences and challenges to ethics review committees

This is a report on a workshop titled ‘Ethics for genomic research across five African countries: Guidelines, experiences and challenges’, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 10 and 11 December 2012. The workshop was hosted by the Wits-INDEPTH partnership, AWI-Gen, as part of the H3Africa Consortium.

Mixture models for gene expression experiments with two species

Cross-species research in drug development is novel and challenging. A bivariate mixture model utilizing information across two species was proposed to solve the fundamental problem of identifying differentially expressed genes in microarray experiments in order to potentially improve the understanding of translation between preclinical and clinical studies for drug development. ...

Validation and assessment of variant calling pipelines for next-generation sequencing

Background The processing and analysis of the large scale data generated by next-generation sequencing (NGS) experiments is challenging and is a burgeoning area of new methods development. Several new bioinformatics tools have been developed for calling sequence variants from NGS data. Here, we validate the variant calling of these tools and compare their relative accuracy to ...

Radiation-induced myeloid leukemia in murine models

The use of radiation therapy is a cornerstone of modern cancer treatment. The number of patients that undergo radiation as a part of their therapy regimen is only increasing every year, but this does not come without cost. As this number increases, so too does the incidence of secondary, radiation-induced neoplasias, creating a need for therapeutic agents targeted specifically ...

Ranking non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms based on disease concepts

As the number of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) identified through whole-exome/whole-genome sequencing programs increases, researchers and clinicians are becoming increasingly reliant upon computational prediction algorithms designed to prioritize potential functional variants for further study. A large proportion of existing prediction algorithms are ...

Novel age-dependent targets in vestibular schwannomas

Background Schwannomas are the most common neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2)-associated tumors with significant phenotypic heterogeneity in patients. The most severe subtype has an early and rapid progression and the mild type has a later onset and a less aggressive course. The aim of this study was to elucidate the underlying molecular differences between these groups. We compared ...

Changing genetic paradigms: creating next-generation genetic databases as tools to understand the emerging complexities of genotype/phenotype relationships

Understanding genotype/phenotype relationships has become more complicated as increasing amounts of inter- and intra-tissue genetic heterogeneity have been revealed through next-generation sequencing and evidence showing that factors such as epigenetic modifications, non-coding RNAs and RNA editing can play an important role in determining phenotype. Such findings have challenged a ...

QGRS-Conserve: a computational method for discovering evolutionarily conserved G-quadruplex motifs

Background Nucleic acids containing guanine tracts can form quadruplex structures via non-Watson-Crick base pairing. Formation of G-quadruplexes is associated with the regulation of important biological functions such as transcription, genetic instability, DNA repair, DNA replication, epigenetic mechanisms, regulation of translation, and alternative splicing. G-quadruplexes play ...

A short guide to long non-coding RNA gene nomenclature

The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) is the only organisation authorised to assign standardised nomenclature to human genes. Of the 38,000 approved gene symbols in our database (http://www.genenames.org), the majority represent protein-coding (pc) genes; however, we also name pseudogenes, phenotypic loci, some genomic features, and to date have named more than 8,500 human ...

A tissue-specific gene expression template portrays heart development and pathology

Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most common cause of death in children under the age of 1. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a severe CHD that results from developmental defects in the conotruncal outflow tract. Recently, a tissue-specific gene expression template (GET) was derived from microarray data that accurately characterized multiple normal human tissues. We used the GET ...

A gene-specific non-enhancer sequence is critical for expression from the promoter of the small heat shock protein gene αB-crystallin

Background Deciphering of the information content of eukaryotic promoters has remained confined to universal landmarks and conserved sequence elements such as enhancers and transcription factor binding motifs, which are considered sufficient for gene activation and regulation. Gene-specific sequences, interspersed between the canonical transacting factor binding sites or adjoining ...

Forced swim test induces divergent global transcriptomic alterations in the hippocampus of high versus low novelty-seeker rats

Background Many neuropsychiatric disorders, including stress-related mood disorders, are complex multi-parametric syndromes. Susceptibility to stress and depression is individually different. The best animal model of individual differences that can be used to study the neurobiology of affect regards spontaneous reactions to novelty. Experimentally, when naive rats are exposed to ...

A survey of software for genome-wide discovery of differential splicing in RNA-Seq data

Alternative splicing is a major contributor to cellular diversity. Therefore the identification and quantification of differentially spliced transcripts in genome-wide transcript analysis is an important consideration. Here, I review the software available for analysis of RNA-Seq data for differential splicing and discuss intrinsic challenges for differential splicing analyses. ...

On the stability of the Bayenv method in assessing human SNP-environment associations

Background Phenotypic variation along environmental gradients has been documented among and within many species, and in some cases, genetic variation has been shown to be associated with these gradients. Bayenv is a relatively new method developed to detect patterns of polymorphisms associated with environmental gradients. Using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach, ...