Human Genomics

http://www.humgenomics.com/

List of Papers (Total 398)

A study of the role of GATA4 polymorphism in cardiovascular metabolic disorders

Background The study was designed to evaluate the association of GATA4 gene polymorphism with coronary artery disease (CAD) and its metabolic risk factors, including dyslipidaemic disorders, obesity, type 2 diabetes and hypertension, following a preliminary study linking early onset of CAD in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia to chromosome 8, which harbours the GATA4 ...

Transcriptomics to study the effect of a Mediterranean-inspired diet on inflammation in Crohn's disease patients

Background Inflammation is an essential immune response; however, chronic inflammation results in disease including Crohn's disease. Therefore, reducing the inflammation can yield a significant health benefit, and one way to achieve this is through diet. We developed a Mediterranean-inspired anti-inflammatory diet and used this diet in a 6-week intervention in a Crohn's disease ...

Viral expression associated with gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas in TCGA high-throughput sequencing data

Background Up to 20% of cancers worldwide are thought to be associated with microbial pathogens, including bacteria and viruses. The widely used methods of viral infection detection are usually limited to a few a priori suspected viruses in one cancer type. To our knowledge, there have not been many broad screening approaches to address this problem more comprehensively. Methods In ...

Update of the human and mouse SERPIN gene superfamily

The serpin family comprises a structurally similar, yet functionally diverse, set of proteins. Named originally for their function as serine proteinase inhibitors, many of its members are not inhibitors but rather chaperones, involved in storage, transport, and other roles. Serpins are found in genomes of all kingdoms, with 36 human protein-coding genes and five pseudogenes. The ...

CER1 gene variations associated with bone mineral density, bone markers, and early menopause in postmenopausal women

Background Osteoporosis has a multifactorial pathogenesis characterized by a combination of low bone mass and increased fragility. In our study, we focused on the effects of polymorphisms in CER1 and DKK1 genes, recently reported as important susceptibility genes for osteoporosis, on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone markers in osteoporotic women. Our objective was to evaluate ...

K-Map: connecting kinases with therapeutics for drug repurposing and development

Protein kinases play important roles in regulating signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. Due to evolutionary conserved binding sites in the catalytic domain of the kinases, most inhibitors that target these sites promiscuously inhibit multiple kinases. Quantitative analysis can reveal complex and unexpected interactions between protein kinases and kinase inhibitors, providing ...

Role of conserved cis-regulatory elements in the post-transcriptional regulation of the human MECP2 gene involved in autism

Background The MECP2 gene codes for methyl CpG binding protein 2 which regulates activities of other genes in the early development of the brain. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Rett syndrome, a form of autism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of evolutionarily conserved cis-elements in regulating the post-transcriptional expression of the ...

Screening in silico predicted remotely acting NF1 gene regulatory elements for mutations in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a neuroectodermal disorder, is caused by germline mutations in the NF1 gene. NF1 affects approximately 1/3,000 individuals worldwide, with about 50% of cases representing de novo mutations. Although the NF1 gene was identified in 1990, the underlying gene mutations still remain undetected in a small but obdurate minority of NF1 patients. We ...

Genetic tests obtainable through pharmacies: the good, the bad, and the ugly

Genomic medicine seeks to exploit an individual’s genomic information in the context of guiding the clinical decision-making process. In the post-genomic era, a range of novel molecular genetic testing methodologies have emerged, allowing the genetic testing industry to grow at a very rapid pace. As a consequence, a considerable number of different private diagnostic testing ...

Rank-based genome-wide analysis reveals the association of Ryanodine receptor-2 gene variants with childhood asthma among human populations

Background The standard approach to determine unique or shared genetic factors across populations is to identify risk alleles in one population and investigate replication in others. However, since populations differ in DNA sequence information, allele frequencies, effect sizes, and linkage disequilibrium patterns, SNP association using a uniform stringent threshold on p values may ...

New susceptibility locus for obesity and dyslipidaemia on chromosome 3q22.3

Background The muscle Ras (MRAS) gene resides on chromosome 3q22.3 and encodes a member of the membrane-associated Ras small GTPase proteins, which function as signal transducers in multiple processes including cell growth and differentiation. Its role in cardiovascular disease is not fully understood yet. In a preliminary study in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia, we ...

Comparative study and meta-analysis of meta-analysis studies for the correlation of genomic markers with early cancer detection

A large number of common disorders, including cancer, have complex genetic traits, with multiple genetic and environmental components contributing to susceptibility. A literature search revealed that even among several meta-analyses, there were ambiguous results and conclusions. In the current study, we conducted a thorough meta-analysis gathering the published meta-analysis ...

Update on the Kelch-like (KLHL) gene family

The Kelch-like (KLHL) gene family encodes a group of proteins that generally possess a BTB/POZ domain, a BACK domain, and five to six Kelch motifs. BTB domains facilitate protein binding and dimerization. The BACK domain has no known function yet is of functional importance since mutations in this domain are associated with disease. Kelch domains form a tertiary structure of ...

Vive la différence: naming structural variants in the human reference genome

The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee has approved gene symbols for the majority of protein-coding genes on the human reference genome. To adequately represent regions of complex structural variation, the Genome Reference Consortium now includes alternative representations of some of these regions as part of the reference genome. Here, we describe examples of how we name novel genes ...

Salamander Hox clusters contain repetitive DNA and expanded non-coding regions: a typical Hox structure for non-mammalian tetrapod vertebrates?

Hox genes encode transcription factors that regulate embryonic and post-embryonic developmental processes. The expression of Hox genes is regulated in part by the tight, spatial arrangement of conserved coding and non-coding sequences. The potential for evolutionary changes in Hox cluster structure is thought to be low among vertebrates; however, recent studies of a few ...

Genetic effects of ATP1A2 in familial hemiplegic migraine type II and animal models

Na+/K+-ATPase alpha 2 (Atp1a2) is an integral plasma membrane protein belonging to the P-type ATPase family that is responsible for maintaining the sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) gradients across cellular membranes with hydrolysis of ATP. Atp1a2 contains two subunits, alpha and beta, with each having various isoforms and differential tissue distribution. In humans, mutations in ...

Exome sequencing identifies nonsegregating nonsense ATM and PALB2 variants in familial pancreatic cancer

We sequenced 11 germline exomes from five families with familial pancreatic cancer (FPC). One proband had a germline nonsense variant in ATM with somatic loss of the variant allele. Another proband had a nonsense variant in PALB2 with somatic loss of the variant allele. Both variants were absent in a relative with FPC. These findings question the causal mechanisms of ATM and PALB2 ...

Extrapolating the effect of deleterious nsSNPs in the binding adaptability of flavopiridol with CDK7 protein: a molecular dynamics approach

Background Recent reports suggest the role of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) gene associated with defect in the DNA repair mechanism that may contribute to cancer risk. Among the various inhibitors developed so far, flavopiridol proved to be a potential antitumor drug in the phase-III clinical trial for chronic lymphocytic ...

Development of a cost-effective high-throughput process of microsatellite analysis involving miniaturized multiplexed PCR amplification and automated allele identification

Background Microsatellites are nucleotide sequences of tandem repeats occurring throughout the genome, which have been widely used in genetic linkage analysis, studies of loss of heterozygosity, determination of lineage and clonality, and the measurement of genome instability or the emergence of drug resistance reflective of mismatch repair deficiency. Such analyses may involve the ...

How to create innovation by building the translation bridge from basic research into medicinal drugs: an industrial perspective

The global healthcare industry is undergoing substantial changes and adaptations to the constant decline of approved new medical entities. This decrease in internal research productivity is resulting in a major decline of patent-protected sales (patent cliff) of most of the pharmaceutical companies. Three major global adaptive trends as driving forces to cope with these challenges ...

An essential reference for the drug safety practitioner

Book details Cobert B Cobert's Manual of Drug Safety and Pharmacovigilance: Second Edition Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2012408 pages, ISBN-13: 978–0763791599

The updated RGD Pathway Portal utilizes increased curation efficiency and provides expanded pathway information

The RGD Pathway Portal provides pathway annotations for rat, human and mouse genes and pathway diagrams and suites, all interconnected via the pathway ontology. Diagram pages present the diagram and description, with diagram objects linked to additional resources. A newly-developed dual-functionality web application composes the diagram page. Curators input the description, ...

Gene selection and cancer type classification of diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma using a bivariate mixture model for two-species data

A bivariate mixture model utilizing information across two species was proposed to solve the fundamental problem of identifying differentially expressed genes in microarray experiments. The model utility was illustrated using a dog and human lymphoma data set prepared by a group of scientists in the College of Veterinary Medicine at North Carolina State University. A small number ...

Softwares and methods for estimating genetic ancestry in human populations

The estimation of genetic ancestry in human populations has important applications in medical genetic studies. Genetic ancestry is used to control for population stratification in genetic association studies, and is used to understand the genetic basis for ethnic differences in disease susceptibility. In this review, we present an overview of genetic ancestry estimation in human ...